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Baker, P., Cepeda, J., Schluth, C., Astemborski, J., Feder, K., Rudolph, J., Sun, J., Kirk, G., Mehta, S. & Genberg, B. (2023). Time-to-completion of COVID-19 vaccination primary series varies by HIV viral load status among people who inject drugs in Baltimore, Maryland. Preventive Medicine Reports. 36. 102448. 10.1016/j.pmedr.2023.102448.

Coyle, C., Desjardins, M., Curriero, F., Rudolph, J., & Astemborski, J., & Falade-Nwulia, O., Kirk, G., Thomas, D., Mehta, S., & Genberg, B. (2023). Geographic variation in HCV treatment penetration among people who inject drugs in Baltimore, MD. Journal of viral hepatitis. 30. 10.1111/jvh.13864.

Feder, K., Patel, E., & Buresh, M., Kirk, G., Mehta, S., & Genberg, B. (2023). Trends in Self-Reported Non-Fatal Overdose and Patterns of Substance Use Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Prospective Cohort of Adults who Have Injected Drugs Baltimore, Maryland, 2014-2022. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 251. 110954. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2023.110954.

Kim, J., Newcomb, C., Carbonari, D., Torgersen, J., Althoff, K., Kitahata, M., Klein, M., Moore, R., Reddy, R., Silverberg, M., Mayor, A., Horberg, M., Cachay, E., Lim, J., Gill, M., Chew, K., Sterling, T., Hull, M., Seaberg, E, & Lo Re, V. (2023). Hepatitis B care cascade among people with HIV/HBV coinfection in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design, 2012-2016. PloS one. 18. e0290889. 10.1371/journal.pone.0290889.

Koehler, K., Wilks, M., Green, T., Rule, A. M., Zamora, M. L., & Buehler, C., Datta, A., Gentner, D. R., Putcha, N., Hansel, N. N., Kirk, G., Raju, S. & McCormack, M. (2023). Evaluation of calibration approaches for indoor deployments of PurpleAir monitors. Atmospheric Environment. 310. 119944. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2023.119944.

Luken, A., Rabinowitz, J., Wells, J., Sosnowski, D., Strickland, J., Thrul, J., Kirk, G. & Maher, B. (2023). Designing and Validating a Novel Method for Assessing Delay Discounting Associated with Health Behaviors: Findings from an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study (Preprint). 10.2196/preprints.48954.

McLaren, P., Porreca, I., Iaconis, G., Mok, H., Mukhopadhyay, S., Karakoç, E.,  Cristinelli, S., Pomilla, C., Bartha, I.,Thorball, C.,  & Tough, R., Angelino, P., Kiar, C., Carstensen, T., Fatumo, S., Porter, T., Jarvis, I., Skarnes, W., & Bassett, A., & Fellay, J. (2023). Africa-specific human genetic variation near CHD1L associates with HIV-1 load. Nature. 620. 1-6. 10.1038/s41586-023-06370-4.

Nsibirwa, S., Aizire, J., Mugerwa, J., Thomas, D., Ocama, P., & Kirk, G. (2023). The impact of HIV infection on clinical presentation and mortality among persons with hepatocellular carcinoma in Kampala, Uganda. BMC Infectious Diseases. 23. 10.1186/s12879-023-08164-5.

Patel, E., Astemborski, J., Feder, K., Rudolph, J., Winiker, A., Sosnowski, D., Kirk, G. Mehta, S., & Genberg, B. (2023). Temporal association of pre-pandemic perceived social support with psychological resilience and mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic among people with a history of injection drug use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 244. 109802. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2023.109802.

Rani, P., Mehta, S., Kathapalia, J., Tyagi, R. Impact of Social Media on Physical and Psychological Health of the Students. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing. Vol 14, No 1 (2023). Pagination: 48-52.

Wekesa, C., & Parkes-Ratanshi, R., Kirk, G & Ocama, P. (2023). Liver Injury Patterns and Hepatic Toxicity among People Living with and without HIV and Attending Care in Urban Uganda. International Journal of Hepatology. 2023. 1-7. 10.1155/2023/6717854.


Althoff, K. & Stewart, C., Humes, E., & Gerace, L., Boyd, C., Gebo, K., & Justice, A.,  Hyle, E., Coburn, S.,  Lang, R., Silverberg, M., Horberg, M., & Lima, V., Gill, M., Karris, M., Rebeiro, P., Thorne, J., Rich, A., Crane, H., & Kasaie, P. (2022). The projected prevalence of comorbidities and multimorbidity in people with HIV in the United States through the year 2030. 10.1101/2022.11.04.22281891.

Baker, P., Cepeda, J., Schluth, C., Astemborski, J., Feder, K., Rudolph, J., Sun, J., Kirk, G., Mehta, S., & Genberg, B. (2023). Time-to-Completion of Covid-19 Vaccination Primary Series Varies by HIV Viral Load Status Among People Who Inject Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland. 10.2139/ssrn.4423541.

Cepeda, J. A., (2022). Impact of Hepatitis C Treatment Uptake on Cirrhosis and Mortality in Persons Who Inject Drugs : A Longitudinal, Community-Based Cohort Study. Annals of internal medicine, 175(8), August 2022. 

Cepeda J.A. (COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Vaccination Status in a Community-Based Cohort of People Who Inject Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland, March–June 2021.Public Health Rep,137(5), Sep-Oct 2022.

Chebrolu, P., Mcfall, A., Brown, T & Srikrishnan, A.K., & Kumar, M., Iqbal, H.  Mathad, J. Lucas, G., & Solomon, & S. Mehta, S. (2023). 1274-P: High Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes without Traditional Risk Factors among Men Who Inject Drugs in Chennai, India. Diabetes. 72. 10.2337/db23-1274-P.

Feder, K., Sun, J., Genberg, B., Musci, R.,  Mojtabai, R., Sosnowski, D. McCall, L., Astemborski, J., Hollander, E., Loving, L. Kirk, G. & Mehta, S. (2022). Association of Childhood Adversity with Heroin and Cocaine Use Across the Life Course of People Who Inject Drugs. SSRN Electronic Journal. 10.2139/ssrn.4103106.

Feder K.A., et. al. (2022). Factors associated with self-reported avoidance of harm reduction services during the COVID-19 pandemic by people who use drugs in five cities in the United States and Canada. Drug and Alcohol Dependence,241, December 2022.

Feder K.A., (2022). Mortality by cause of death during year 1 of the COVID-19 pandemic in a cohort of older adults from Baltimore Maryland who have injected drugs. The International Journal on Drug Policy, 109, August 2022.               

Gorbach P.M. Use of COVID-19 testing in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic among cohorts of people at the intersection of drug use and HIV. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. September 2022.   

Heidari, O., et. al. (2022). Multimorbidity classes indicate differential patterns of health care engagement among people who inject drugs. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 142, November 2022.    

Lesko, C. R. (2022). COVID-19 and the HIV continuum in people living with HIV enrolled in Collaborating Consortium of Cohorts Producing NIDA Opportunities (C3PNO) cohorts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 241, December 2022.  

Moallef S. (2022). Day-to-day impact of COVID-19 and other factors associated with risk of nonfatal overdose among people who use unregulated drugs in five cities in the United States and Canada. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 241, December 2022.            

Raju, Sarath & Gearhart, Andrew & Drummond, M & Brown, Nicole & Ramamurthi, Hema & Kirk, Gregory & Brown, Robert & Mccormack, Meredith. (2022). HIV-associated COPD Is Characterized by Increased Small Airways Dysfunction on CT. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 20. 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202203-203RL.

Shu, C., et. al. (2022). Epigenome-wide association analyses of active injection drug use. Drug and alcohol dependence, 235,June 2022.   

Sosnowski, D. W., et. al. (2022). Adverse childhood experiences and comorbidity in a cohort of people who have injected drugs. BMC public health, 22(1), May 2022.              

Valencia, A., et. al. (2022). Trans-ancestral fine-mapping of MHC reveals key amino acids associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C in HLA-DQβ1. American journal of human genetics, 109(2), February 2022.

Wang, R., Rothman, R., Mohareb, A., Laeyendecker, O., Cloherty, G., Quinn, T., Hsieh, Y.,  Anderson, M., Solomon, S., Fernandez, R., Dashler, G., Mehta, R., Stec, M., Kickler, T., Kelen, G., Mehta, S., Beck, E., Saraf, S., Baker, O., & Hurley, J. (2022). High Burden of Undiagnosed Hepatitis B and Liver Disease in an Urban Emergency Department – Baltimore, 2020. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 10.1016/j.cgh.2022.10.033.


Baum M. K. (2021). HIV, Psychological Resilience, and Substance Misuse During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Cohort Study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 231, February 2022.


Cepeda JA, Thomas DL, Astemborski J, Sulkowski MS, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. Increased mortality among persons with chronic hepatitis c with moderate or severe liver disease: A cohort studyClin Infect Dis, 65(2):235-243. PMID: 28329108.

Shiels MS, Kirk GD, Drummond MB, Dhillon D, Hanash SM, Taguchi A, Engels EA. HIV infection and circulating levels of pro-surfactant protein b and surfactant protein d. J Infect Dis (In press).

Dubrow R, Qin L, Lin H, Hernandez-Ramirez RU, Neugebauer RS, Leyden W, Althoff KN, Achenbach CJ, Hessol NA, Modur SP, D’Souza G, Bosch RJ, Grover S, Horberg MA, Kitahata MM, Mayor AM, Novak RM, Rabkin CS, Sterling TR, Goedert JJ, Justice AC, Engels EA, Moore RD, Silverberg MJ, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS. Associations of CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, and antiretroviral therapy with Kaposi sarcoma risk among HIV-infected persons in the United States and CanadaJAIDS, 2017; 75(4):382-390. PMCID: PMC5490794.

Quinn J, Astemborski J, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Thomas DL, Balagopal A. HIV/HCV Co-infection, Liver Disease Progression, and Age-Related IGF-1 DeclinePathog Immun, 2017; 2(1):50-59. PMCID: PMC5425162.

Veenhuis RT, Astemborski J, Chattergoon MA, Greenwood P, Jarosinski M, Moore RD, Mehta SH, Cox AL. Systemic Elevation of Proinflammatory Interleukin 18 in HIV/HCV Coinfection versus HIV or HCV MonoinfectionClin Infect Dis, 2017; 64(5):589-596. PMID: 27927859.

Vergara C, Thio C, Latanich R, Cox AL, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Busch M, Murphy EL, Villacres MC, Peters MG, French AL, Golub E, Eron J, Lahiri CD, Shrestha S, Gustafson D, Young M, Anastos K, Aouizerat B, Kim AY, Lauer G, Thomas DL, Duggal P. Genetic basis for inflammasome activation in persons with chronic hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus-1 infectionsGenes Immun, 2017; 18(2):82-87. PMCID: PMC5408324.

Ramsuran V, Hernandez-Sanchez PG, O’hUigin C, Sharma G, Spence N, Augusto DG, Gao X, Garcia-Sepulveda CA, Kaur G, Mehra NK, Carrington M. Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Untranslated Promoter Regions for HLA Class I GenesJ Immunol, 2017; 198(6):2320-2329. PMID: 8148735; PMCID: PMC5340644.

Westergaard RP, Genz A, Panico K, Surkan PJ, Keruly J, Hutton HE, Chang LW, Kirk GD. Acceptability of a mobile health intervention to enhance HIV care coordination for patients with substance use disordersAddict Sci Clin Pract, 2017; 12 (1):11. PMCID: PMC5405459.

Piggott DA, Muzaale AD, Varadhan R, Mehta SH, Westergaard RP, Brown TT, Patel KV, Walston JD, Leng SX, Kirk GD. Frailty and cause-specific hospitalization among persons aging with HIV infection and injection drug useJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2017; 72(3):389-394. PMID: 27516622.

Drummond MB, Lambert AA, Hussien AF, Lin CT, Merlo CA, Wise RA, Kirk GD, Brown RH. HIV infection is independently associated with increased ct scan lung densityAcad Radiol, 2017; 24(2):137-145. PMCID: PMC5237394.


Popescu I, Drummond MB, Gama L, Lambert A, Hoji A, Coon T, Merlo CA, Wise RA, Keruly J, Clements JE, Kirk GD, McDyer JF. HIV suppression restores lung mucosal cd4+ t-cell viral immunity and resolves cd8+ alveolitis in patients at risk for HIV-associated copdJ Infect Dis, 2016; 214(10):1520-1530. PMCID: PMC5091376.

Klein MB, Althoff KN, Jing Y, Lau B, Kitahata M, Lo Re V, 3rd, Kirk GD, Hull M, Kim HN, Sebastiani G, Moodie EE, Silverberg MJ, Sterling TR, Thorne JE, Cescon A, Napravnik S, Eron J, Gill MJ, Justice A, Peters MG, Goedert JJ, Mayor A, Thio CL, Cachay ER, Moore R. Risk of end-stage liver disease in HIV-viral hepatitis coinfected persons in north america from the early to modern antiretroviral therapy erasClin Infect Dis, 2016; 63(9):1160-1167. PMCID: PMC5064164.

Walker-Sperling V, Merlo C, Buckheit R, Lambert A, Tarwater P, Kirk G, Drummond B, Blankson J. HIV controller t cells effectively inhibit viral replication in alveolar macrophagesAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 2016; 32:1097-1099. PMCID: PMC5067835.

Buchacz K, Lau B, Jing Y, Bosch R, Abraham AG, Gill MJ, Silverberg MJ, Goedert JJ, Sterling TR, Althoff KN, Martin JN, Burkholder G, Gandhi N, Samji H, Patel P, Rachlis A, Thorne JE, Napravnik S, Henry K, Mayor A, Gebo K, Gange SJ, Moore RD, Brooks JT. Incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections in a multicohort analysis of HIV-infected persons in the United States and Canada, 2000-2010J Infect Dis, 2016; 214 (6):862-872. PMCID: PMC4996145.

Pavasini R, Guralnik J, Brown JC, di Bari M, Cesari M, Landi F, Vaes B, Legrand D, Verghese J, Wang C, Stenholm S, Ferrucci L, Lai JC, Bartes AA, Espaulella J, Ferrer M, Lim JY, Ensrud KE, Cawthon P, Turusheva A, Frolova E, Rolland Y, Lauwers V, Corsonello A, Kirk GD, Ferrari R, Volpato S, Campo G. Short physical performance battery and all-cause mortality: Systematic review and meta-analysisBMC Med, 2016; 14 (1):215. PMCID: PMC5178082.

Koethe JR, Jenkins CA, Lau B, Shepherd BE, Wester W, Rebeiro PF, Silverberg MJ, Thorne JE, Gill J, Mayor AM, Willig A, Bosch R, Horberg MA, Justice AC, Sterling TR, Moore RD, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Higher Time-Updated Body Mass Index: Association With Improved CD4+ Cell Recovery on HIV TreatmentJAIDS, 2016; 73(2): 197-204.  PMCID: PMC5023455.

Brune KA, Ferreira F, Mandke P, Chau E, Aggarwal NR, D'Alessio FR, Lambert AA, Kirk G, Blankson J, Drummond MB, Tsibris AM, Sidhaye VK. HIV impairs lung epithelial integrity and enters the epithelium to promote chronic lung inflammationPLoS One, 2016; 11 (3):e0149679. PMCID: PMC4773117.

Cesar C, Koethe JR, Giganti MJ, Rebeiro P, Althoff KN, Napravnik S, Mayor A, Grinsztejn B, Wolff M, Padgett D, Sierra-Madero J, Gotuzzo E, Sterling TR, Willing J, Levison J, Kitahata M, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Moore RD, McGowan C, Shepherd BE, Cahn P, Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet) and North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South AmericaJ Int AIDS Soc, 2016; 19(1):20684. PMCID: PMC4800379.

Lam Y, Westergaard R, Kirk G, Ahmadi A, Genz A, Keruly J, Hutton H, Surkan PJ. Provider-level and other health systems factors influencing engagement in HIV care: A qualitative study of a vulnerable populationPLoS One, 2016; 11 (7):e0158759. PMCID: PMC4948838.

Pettit AC, Mendes A, Jenkins C, Napravnik S, Freeman A, Shepherd BE, Dowdy D, Gill J, Rachlis A, Moore R, Sterling TR, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) investigators of International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA). Timing of antiretroviral treatment, immunovirologic status, and TB risk: Implications for testing and treatmentJAIDS, 2016; 72(5): 572-578. PMCID: PMC4942351.

Koethe JR, Jenkins CA, Lau B, Shepherd BE, Justice AM, Tate JP, Buchacz K, Napravnik S, Mayor AM, Horberg MA, Blashill AJ, Willig A, Wester CW, Silverberg MJ, Gill J, Thorne JE, Klein M, Eron JJ, Kitahata MM, Sterling TR, Moore RD, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Higher time-updated body mass index: Association with improved CD4+ cell recovery on HIV treatmentPLOS One, 2016; 11(1):e0146119. PMCID: PMC4708981.

Patel EU, Cox AL, Mehta SH, Boon D, Mullis CE, Astemborski J, Osburn WO, Quinn J, Redd AD, Kirk GD, Thomas DL, Quinn TC, Laeyendecker O. Use of hepatitis c virus (HCV) immunoglobulin g antibody avidity as a biomarker to estimate the population-level incidence of HCV infectionJ Infect Dis, 2016; 214(3):344-352. PMCID: PMC4936640.

An P, Penugonda S, Thorball CW, Bartha I, Goedert JJ, Donfield S, Buchbinder S, Binns-Roemer E, Kirk GD, Zhang W, Fellay J, Yu XF, Winkler CA. Role of apobec3f gene variation in HIV-1 disease progression and pneumocystis pneumoniaPLoS Genet, 2016; 12 (3):e1005921. PMCID: PMC4778847.

Linas BS, Genz A, Westergaard RP, Chang LW, Bollinger RC, Latkin C, Kirk GD. Ecological momentary assessment of illicit drug use compared to biological and self-reported methodsJMIR MHealth UHealth, 2016; 4(1):e27. PMCID: PMC4812047.

Lambert AA, Drummond MB, Kisalu A, Moxley J, Keruly J, Moore RD, Wise RA, Kirk GD. Implementation of a copd screening questionnaire in an outpatient HIV clinicCOPD, 2016; 13(6):767-772. PMCID: PMC5073036.

Vergara C, Thio CL, Thomas D, Duggal P. Polymorphisms in melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 are not associated with clearance of hepatitis C virus in a European American populationHepatology, 2016; 63(3):1061-1062. PMCID: PMC4689676.

Rachlis B, Karwa R, Chema C, Pastakia S, Olsson S, Wools-Kaloustian K, Jakait B, Maina M, Yotebieng M, Kumarasamy N, Freeman A, de Rekeneire N, Duda SN, Davies M, Braitstein P. Targeted Spontaneous Reporting: Assessing Opportunities to Conduct Routine Pharmacovigilance for Antiretroviral Treatment on an International ScaleDrug Saf, 2016; 39(10):959-976. PMCID: PMC5018020.

Mehta SH, Thomas DL. Doing the math on hepatitis C virus treatmentJ Hepatol, 2016; 65(1):5-6. PMCID: PMC4912864.

Kirkpatrick AR, Patel EU, Celum CL, Moore RD, Blankson JN, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Margolick JB, Quinn TC, Eshleman SH, Laeyendecker O. Development and evaluation of a modified fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus enzyme immunoassay for cross-sectional incidence estimation in clade b populationsAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 2016; 32 (8):756-762. PMCID: PMC4971410.

Leader JK, Crothers K, Huang L, King MA, Morris A, Thompson BW, Flores SC, Drummond MB, Rom WN, Diaz PT. Risk factors associated with quantitative evidence of lung emphysema and fibrosis in an HIV-infected cohortJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2016; 71(4):420-427. PMCID: PMC4770858.

Drummond MB, Kunisaki KM, Huang L. Obstructive lung diseases in HIV: a clinical review and identification of key future research needsSemin Respir Crit Care Med, 2016; 37(2):277-288. PMCID: PMC4809361.


da Costa AN, Plymoth A, Santos-Silva D, Ortiz-Cuaran S, Camey S, Guilloreau P, Sangrajrang S, Khuhaprema T, Mendy M, Lesi OA, Chang HK, Oh JK, Lee DH, Shin HR, Kirk GD, Merle P, Beretta L, Hainaut P. Osteopontin and latent-tgf beta binding-protein 2 as potential diagnostic markers for hbv-related hepatocellular carcinomaInt J Cancer, 2015; 136 (1):172-181. PMID: PMC24803312

Linas BS, Latkin C, Westergaard RP, Chang LW, Bollinger RC, Genz A, Kirk GD. Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs. Addiction, 2015; 110(2):315-325. PMID: PMC4447335. 

Genz A, Kirk GD, Piggott DA, Mehta SH, Linas BS, Westergaard RP. Uptake and acceptability of information and communication technology in a community-based cohort of people who inject drugs: Implications for mobile health interventions. JMIR MHealth UHealth, 2015; 3(2):e70. PMID: PMC4526964

Lambert AA, Kirk GD, Astemborski J, Mehta SH, Wise RA, Drummond MB. HIV infection is associated with increased risk for acute exacerbation of COPDJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2015; 69(1):68-74. PMID: PMC4422097

Genberg BL, Astemborski J, Vlahov D, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. Incarceration and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland. Addiction, 2015; 110(7):1152-1159.PMID: PMC4478154

O’Brien TR, Pfeiffer RM, Paquin A, Lang Kuhs KA, Chen S, Bonkovsky HL, Edlin BR, Howell CD, Kirk GD, Kuniholm M, Morgan TR, Pearce CL, Strickler H, Thomas DL, Prokunina-Olsson L. Comparison of IFNL4-ΔG/TT and IFNL3 rs4803217 for association with HCV clearanceJ Hepatol, 2015. PMID:PMC26186989

Bailey JR, Dowd KA, Snider AE, Osburn WO, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Thomas DL, Ray SC. CD4+ T cell-dependent reduction in hepatitis C virus-specific neutralizing antibody responses following coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis, 2015; 212(6):914-923. PMID: PMC4548462

Yang C†, Linas B, Kirk G, Bollinger R, Chang L, Chander G, Siconolfi D, Braxton S, Rudolph A, Latkin C. Feasibility and acceptability of smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of alcohol use among african american men who have sex with men in Baltimore. JMIR MHealth UHealth, 2015; 3(2):e67. PMID: PMC4526945

Linas BS, Latkin C, Genz A, Westergaard RP, Chang LW, Bollinger RC, Kirk GD. Utilizing mhealth methods to identify patterns of high risk illicit drug useDrug Alcohol Depend, 2015; 151:250-257. PMID: PMC4447533

Abraham AG, Althoff KN, Jing Y, Estrella MM, Kitahata MM, Wester CW, Bosch RJ, Crane H, Eron J, Gill MJ, Horberg MA, Justice AC, Klein M, Mayor AM, Moore RD, Palella FJ, Parikh CR, Silverberg MJ, Golub ET, Jacobson LP, Napravnik S, Lucas GM. End-stage renal disease among HIV-infected adults in North America. Clin Infect Dis, 2015; 60(6):941-949. PMID: PMC4357817

Silverberg MJ, Lau B, Achenbach CJ, Jing Y, Althoff KN, D'Souza G, Engels EA, Hessol NA, Brooks JT, Burchell AN, Gill MJ, Goedert JJ, Hogg R, Horberg MA, Kirk GD, Kitahata MM, Korthuis PT, Mathews WC, Mayor A, Modur SP, Napravnik S, Novak RM, Patel P, Rachlis AR, Sterling TR, Willig JH, Justice AC, Moore RD, Dubrow R. Cumulative incidence of cancer among persons with HIV in north america: A cohort study. Ann Intern Med, 2015; 163 (7):507-518. PMID: PMC4447533

McLaren PJ, Coulonges C, Bartha I, Lenz TL, Deutsch AJ, Bashirova A, Buchbinder S, Carrington MN, Cossarizza A, Dalmau J, De Luca A, Goedert JJ, Gurdasani D, Haas DW, Herbeck JT, Johnson EO, Kirk GD, Lambotte O, Luo M, Mallal S, van Manen D, Martinez-Picado J, Meyer L, Miro JM, Mullins JI, Obel N, Poli G, Sandhu MS, Schuitemaker H, Shea PR, Theodorou I, Walker BD, Weintrob AC, Winkler CA, Wolinsky SM, Raychaudhuri S, Goldstein DB, Telenti A, de Bakker PI, Zagury JF, Fellay J. Polymorphisms of large effect explain the majority of the host genetic contribution to variation of hiv-1 virus loadProc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015; 112 (47):14658-14663. 

Leng SX, Dandorf S, Li H, Carlson J, Hui J, Mehta SH, Piggott D, Islam S, Manwani B, Kirk GD. Associations of circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors 1 and 2 with interleukin-6 levels in an aging cohort of injection drug users with or at high risk for HIV infectionAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 2015; 31 (12):1257-1264. 

Smith DK, Pan Y, Rose CE, Pals SL, Mehta SH, Kirk, GD, Herbst JH. A brief screening tool to assess the risk of contracting HIV infeciton among active injection drug usersJ Addict Med 2015; 9(3):226-32. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000123. PMCID: PMC4449303

Cassol E, Misra V, Morgello S, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Gabuzda D. Altered Monoamine and Acylcarnitine Metabolites in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Subjects With Depression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 May 1;69(1):18-28. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000551

Viswanathan S, Detels R, Mehta SH, Macatangay BJ, Kirk GD, Jacobson LP. Level of adherence and HIV RNA suppression in the current era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). AIDS Behav. 2015 Apr;19(4):601-11. doi: 10.1007/s10461-014-0927-4. PubMed PMID: 25342151; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4393774.

Drummond MB, Huang L, Diaz PT,Kirk GD, Kleerup EC, Morris A, Rom W, Weiden MD, Zhao E, Thompson B, Crothers K. Factors associated with abnormal spirometry among HIV-infected individuals. AIDS, 2015; 29 (13):1691-1700. 

Robbins HA, Fennell CE, Gillison M, Xiao W, Guo Y, Wentz A, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, D'Souza G. Prevalence of and risk factors for oral human papillomavirus infection among HIV-positive and HIV-negative people who inject drugs.PLoS One, 2015; 10 (11):e0143698.

Patel EU, Cox AL, Mehta SH, Boon D, Mullis CE, Astemborski J, Osburn WO, Quinn J, Redd AD, Kirk GD, Thomas DL, Quinn TC, Laeyendecker O. Hepatitis C IgG antibody avidity as a biomarker to estimate population-level incidenceJ Infect Dis, 2015.

Piggott DA†, Varadhan R, Mehta SH, Brown TT, Li H, Walston JD, Leng SX, Kirk GD. Frailty, inflammation, and mortality among persons aging with hiv infection and injection drug use. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2015; 70 (12):1542-1547.


Etemad B, Gonzalez OA, White L, Laeyendecker O, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Sagar M. Characterization of HIV-1 envelopes in acutely and chronically infected drug usersRetroviorology 2014;11(1): 106. PMCID:PMC4253609

Duggal P, Wojcik G, Thio C, Latanich R, Goedert J, Mehta SH, Kirk G, Peters M, Cox A, Kim A, Chung R, Thomas D. Admixture Analysis of Spontaneous Hepatitis C Virus Clearance in Individuals of African-DescentGenes Immun 2014; 15(4):241-6. PMCID: PMC4308959

Greene M, Covinsky K, Astemborski J, Piggott DA, Brown T, Leng S, Galai N, Mehta SH, Guralnik J, Patel KV, Kirk GD. The relationship of physical performance with HIV disease and mortality. AIDS. 2014 Nov 28;28(18):2711-9. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000507. PubMed PMID: 25493597; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4380225

Cousins MM, Konikoff J, Laeyendecker O, Celum C, Buchbinder SP, Seage GR, 3rd, Kirk GD, Moore RD, Mehta SH, Margolick JB, Brown J, Mayer KH, Koblin BA, Wheeler D, Justman JE, Hodder SL, Quinn TC, Brookmeyer R, Eshleman SH. HIV diversity as a biomarker for HIV incidence estimation: Including a high-resolution melting diversity assay in a multiassay algorithm. J Clin Microbiol, 2014; 52(1): 115-21. PMCID: PMC3911463 

Longosz AF, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Margolick JD, Brown J, Quinn TC, Eshleman SH, Laeyendecker O. Incorrect identification in recent HIV infection in adults in the United States using a limited-antigen avidity assay. AIDS, 2014; 28(8): 1227-32. PMCID: PMC4102639

Linton SL†, Jennings JJ, Latkin C, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. The association between neighborhood residential rehabilitation and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland, 2000-2011. Health & Place, 2014; 28C:142-149. PMID: 24840154 

Cousins MM, Konikoff J, Sabin D, Khaki L, Longosz AF, Laeyendecker O, Celum C, Buchbinder SP, Seage GR, 3rd, Kirk GD, Moore RD, Mehta SH, Margolick JB, Brown J, Mayer KH, Kobin BA, Wheeler D, Justman JE, Hodder SL, Quinn TC, Brookmeyer R, Eshleman SH. A comparison of two measures of HIV diversity in multi-assay algorithms for HIV incidence estimation. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9(6):e101043. PMCID: PMC4072769 

Wojcik GL, Thio CL, Kao WH, Latanich R, Goedert JJ, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Peters MG, Cox AL, Kim AY, Chung RT, Thomas DL, Duggal P. Admixture analysis of spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance in individuals of African descent. Genes Immun, 2014; 15(4):241-6. PMID: 24622687 

Hulbert A, Hooker CM, Keruly JC, Brown T, Horton K, Fishman E, Rodgers K, Lee B, Sam C, Tsai S, Weihe E, Pridham G, Drummond B, Merlo C, Geronimo M, Porter M, Cox S, Li D, Harline M, Teran M, Wrangle J, Mudge B, Taylor G, Kirk GD, Herman JG, Moore RD, Brown RH, Brock MV. Prospective CT screening for lung cancer in a high-risk population: HIV-positive smokers. J Thorac Oncol, 2014; 9(6):752-9. PMCID: PMC4023914  

An P, Goedert JJ, Donfield S, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, Detels R, Winkler CA. Regulatory variation in HIV-1 dependency factor ZNRD1 associates with host resistance to HIV-1 acquisition. J Infect Dis, 2014; [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24842830

Lambert AA†, Drummond MB, Mehta SH, Brown TT, Lucas GM, Kirk GD, Estrella MM. Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency among HIV-infected and uninfected injection drug users. PLoS One, 2014; 9(4):e95802. PMCID: PMC3995810 

Althoff KNRebeiro PBrooks JTBuchacz KGebo KMartin JHogg RThorne JEKlein MGill MJSterling TRYehia BSilverberg MJCrane HJustice ACGange SJMoore RKitahata MMHorberg MANorth American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Disparities in the quality of HIV care when using US Department of Health and Human Services indicators. Clin Infect Dis, 2014; 58(8):1185-9. PMCID: PMC3967825

Bashirova AA, Martin-Gayo E, Jones DC, Qi Y, Apps R, Gao X, Burke PS, Taylor CJ, Rogich J, Wolinsky S, Bream JH, Duggal P, Hussain S, Martinson J, Weintrob A, Kirk GD, Fellay J, Buchbinder SP, Goedert JJ, Deeks SG, Pereyra F, Trowsdale J, Lichterfeld M, Telenti A, Walker BD, Allen RL, Carrington M, Yu XG. LILRB2 interaction with HLA class I correlates with control of HIV-1 infection. PLoS Genet, 2014; 10(3):e1004196. PMCID: PMC3945438 

Drummond MB†, Kirk GD. HIV-associated lung disease: Recent insights and implications for the clinician. Lancet Respir Med, 2014.  PMCID: PMC4111094

Lambert AA†, Kirk GD, Astemborski J, Neptune E, Mehta SH, Wise R, Drummond MB.   A cross-sectional analysis of the role of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in lung function impairment within the ALIVE cohort. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9(4): e95099. PMCID: PMC3990590  

Popescu I, Drummond MB, Gama L, Merlo CA, Astemborski J, Brown RH, Wise RA, Clements JE, Kirk GD, McDyer JF. Activation-induced cell death drives profound lung CD4+ T cell depletion in HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2014. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25137293 

Drummond MB†, Astemborski J, Lambert AA, Goldberg S, Stitzer ML, Merlo CA, Rand CS, Wise RA, Kirk GD. A randomized pilot study of contingency management and spirometric lung age for motivating smoking cessation among injection drug users. BMC Public Health, 2014;  28(14):761


Samji H, Cescon A, Hogg RS, Modur SP, Althoff KN, Buchacz K, Burchell AN, Cohen M, Gebo KA, Gill MJ, Justice A, Kirk GD, Klein MB, Korthuis PT, Martin J, Napravnik S, Rourke SB, Sterling TR, Silverberg MJ, Deeks S, Jacobson LP, Bosch RJ, Kitahata MM, Goedert JJ, Moore R, Gange SJ; North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) of IeDEA. Closing the gap: increases in life expectancy among treated HIV-positive individuals in the United States and Canada. PLoS One, 2013; 8(12):e8135. PMCID: PMC3867319 

Brookmeyer R, Konikoff J, Laeyendecker O, Eshleman SH. Estimation of HIV incidence using multiple biomarkers. Am J Epidemiol 2013;177:264-72.

Duggal P, Thio CL, Wojcik GL, Goedert JJ, Mangia A, Latanich R, Kim AY, Lauer GM, Chung RT, Peters MG, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Cox AL, Khakoo SI, Alric L, Cramp ME, Donfield SM, Edlin BR, Tobler LH, Busch MP, Alexander G, Rosen HR, Gao X, Abdel-Hamid M, Apps R, Carrington M, Thomas DL. Genome wide association study of spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus infection. Ann Intern Med 2013;158:235-45. PMCID: PMC3638215.

Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Astemborski J, Galai N, Washington J, Higgins Y, Balagopal A, Thomas DL. HIV, age, and the severity of hepatitis C virus-related liver disease: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2013;158:658-66.

Piggott DA, Muzaale AD, Mehta SH, Brown TT, Leng SX, Kirk GD. Frailty, HIV Infection, and Mortality in and Aging Cohort of Injection Drug Users.Plos One 2013;8:e54910. PMCID: PMC3561408.

Howe CJ, Cole SR, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. Estimating the effects of multiple time-varying exposures using joint marginal structural models: alcohol consumption, injection drug use, and HIV acquisitionEpidemiology 2012; 23(4):574-82. PMCID: PMC3367098.

Prokunina-Olsson L, Muchmore B, Tang W, Pfeiffer RM, Park H, Dickensheets H, Hergott D, Porter-Gill P, Mumy A, Kohaar I, Chen S, Brand N, Tarway M, Liu L, Sheikh F, Astemborski J, Bonkovsky HL, Edlin BR, Howell CD, Morgan TR, Thomas DL, Rehermann B, Donnelly RP, O'Brien TR. A variant upstream of IFNL3 (IL28B) creating a new interferon gene IFNL4 is associated with impaired clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nat Genet 2013; 45(2):164-71. PMCID: PMC3793390.

Linton SL, Celentano DD, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. The longitudinal association between homelessness, injection drug use, and injection-related risk behavior among persons with a history of injection drug use in Baltimore, MDDrug Alcohol Depend 2013; 132(3): 457-65.

Linton SL, Kennedy CE, Latkin CA, Celentano DD, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. "Everything that looks good ain't good!": Perspectives on urban redevelopment among persons with a history of injection drug use in Baltimore, MarylandInt J Drug Policy 2013; 24(6): 605-13.  

Genberg BL, Gillespie M, Schuster CR, Johanson CE, Astemborski J, Kirk GD, Vlahov D, Mehta SH. Prevalence and correlates of street-obtained buprenorphine use among current and former injectors in Baltimore, MarylandAddict Behav 2013; 38 (12): 2868-73. PMCID: PMC3805723.



Althoff KN, Buchacz K, Hall HI, Zhang J, Hanna DB, Rebeiro P, Gange SJ, Moore RD, Kitahata MM, Gebo KA, Martin J, Justice AC, Horberg MA, Hogg RS, Sterling TR, Cescon A, Klein MB, Thorne JE, Crane HM, Mugavero MJ, Napravnik S, Kirk GD, Jacobson LP, Brooks JT; North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design. U.S. trends in antiretroviral therapy use, HIV RNA plasma viral loads, and CD4 T-lymphocyte cell counts among HIV-infected persons, 2000 to 2008Ann Intern Med 2012;157:325-35. PMCID:PMC3534765.

Chatziandreou N, Arauz AB, Freitas I, Nyein PH, Fenton G, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Sagar M. Sensitivity changes over the course of infection increases the likelihood of resistance against fusion but not CCR5 receptor blockers. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses (in press).

Claassen CW, Diener-West M, Mehta SH, Thomas DL, Kirk GD. Discordance between CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and percentages in HIV-infected persons with liver fibrosisClin Infect Dis 2012;54:1806-13.

Deng Z, Gao X, Kirk GD, Wolinsky S, Carrington M. Characterization of the HLA-C*07:01 allele group in European and African-American cohortsHum Immunol 2012;73:715-9. PMCID: PMC3377779.

Drummond MB, Kirk GD, Astemborksi J, Marshall MM, Mehta SH, McDyer JF, Brown RH, Wise RA and Merlo CA. Association between obstructive lung disease and markers of HIV infection in a high risk cohort. Thorax 2012;67:309-14.

Estrella M, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Brown TT, Fine DM, Atta MG, Lucas GM. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with persistent proteinuria among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected injection drug users. AIDS 2012;26:295-302.

Fu T, Westergaard RP, Lau B, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. Changes in sexual and drug-related risk behavior following antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-infected injection drug usersAIDS 2012 Nov; 26(18): 2383-91.

Hanna DB, Buchacz K, Gebo KA, Hessol NA, Horberg MA, Jacobson LP, Kirk GD, Kitahata MM, Korthuis PT, Moore RD, Napravnik S, Patel P, Silverberg MJ, Sterling TR, Willig JH, Lau B, Althoff KN, Crane HM, Collier AC, Samji H, Thorne JE, Gill MJ, Klein MB, Martin JN, Rodriguez B, Rourke SB, Gange SJ; North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design. Trends and disparities in antiretroviral therapy initiation and virologic suppression among newly treatment-eligible HIV-infected individuals in North America, 2001-2009Clin Infect Dis 2013;56(8):1174-82.

Howe CJ, Cole SR, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. Estimating the effects ofmultiple time-varying exposures using joint marginal structural models: alcohol consumption, drug injection use, and HIV acquisitionEpidemiology 2012;23:574-582. PMCID: PMC3367098.

Justice A, Modur S, Tate J, Althoff K, Jacobson L, Gebo K, Rourke S, Rachlis A, Moore R, Kirk GD, Bosch R, Rodriguez B, Hogg R, Goedert J, Gill M, Deeks S, Sterling T, Anastos K, Gange S. Predictive accuracy of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index for mortality with HIV infection: A North American cross cohort analysisJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (in press).

Kornek M, Lynch M, Mehta SH, Lai M, Exley M, Afdhal NH, Schuppan D. Circulating microparticles: inflammatory cell type specific biomarkers reflecting severity of inflammation in hepatitis C and NASH. Gastroenterology 2012;143:448-58.

Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Astemborski J, Sulkowski MS, Afdhal N, Thomas DL. Stability of liver fibrosis among HCV-infected injection drug users. Antiviral therapy 2012;17:813-21.

Mehta SH, Sudarshi D, Srikrishnan AK, Celentano DD, Vasudevan CK, Anand S, Kumar MS, Latkin C, Solomon S, Solomon SS. Factors associated with injection cessation, relapse and initiation in a community-based cohort of injection drug users in Chennai, India. Addiction 2012:107:349-58. PMCID: PMC3222716.

Munshaw S, Hwang HS, Torbenson M, Quinn J, Hansen, KD, Astemborski J,Mehta, SH, Ray SC, Thomas, DL, Balagopal A. Laser captured hepatocytes show association of BCHE loss and fibrosis progression in hepatitis C infected drug users. Hepatology 2012;56:544-54. PMCID: PMC3388175.

Thomas R, Thio CL, Apps R, Qi Y, Gao X, Marti D, Stein J, Soderberg K, Moody M, Goedert J, Kirk GD, Hoots W, Wolinsky S, Carrington M. A novel variant marking HLA-DP Expression Levels Predicts Hepatitis B Virus RecoveryJ Virol 2012. Jun; 86(12):6979-85. PMCID:PMC3393572

Westergaard RP, Ambrose BL, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. Provider and clinic-level correlates of deferring antiretroviral therapy for people who inject drugs: A survey of North American providersJ Int AIDS Soc 2012;15:10. PMCID: PMC3306203.

An P, Li R, Wang JM, Yoshimura T, Takahashi M, Samudralal R, O'Brien SJ, Phair J, Goedert JJ, Kirk GD, Troyer JL, Sezgin E, Buchbinder SP, Donfield S, Nelson GW, Winkler CA. Role of exonic variation in chemokine receptor genes on AIDS: CCRL2 F167Y association with pneumocystis pneumonia. PLoS Genetics 2011;7:e1002328. PMCID: PMC3203199.

Bachetti P, Boylan R, Astemborski J, Shen H, Mehta SH, Thomas DL, Terrault NA, Monto A. Progression of biopsy-measured liver fibrosis in untreated patients with hepatitis C infection: non-markov multistate model analysis. PLOS one 2011;6:e20104. PMCID: PMC3103523.

Crothers K, Thompson BW, Burkhardt K, Morris A, Flores SC, Diaz PT, Chaisson RE, Kirk GD, Rom WN, Huang L. HIV-associated lung infections and complications in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Proc Am Thoracic Soc 2011;8:275-81. PMCID: PMC3132785.

Degenhardt L, Singleton S, McLaren J, Kerr T, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Hall W. Mortality among problematic cocaine users: A systematic review of cohort studies. Drug Alcohol Depend 2011;113:88-95.

Drummond MB, Kirk GD, Astemborski J, McCormack MC, Marshall MM, Mehta SH, Wise RA, Merlo CA. Prevalence and risk factors for unrecognized obstructive lung disease among urban drug users. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2011;6:89-95. PMCID: PMC3048084.

Genberg BL, Gange SJ, Go VF, Celentano DD, Kirk GD, Latkin CA, Mehta SH. The effect of neighborhood deprivation and residential relocation on long-term injection cessation among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, Maryland. Addiction 2011;106:1966-74. PMCID: PMC3189272.

Genberg BL, Gange SJ, Go VF, Celentano DD, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. Trajectories of injection drug use over 20 years (1988-2008) in Baltimore, MD. Am J Epidemiol 2011;173:829-36. PMCID: PMC3070496.

Hsieh J-J, Ding AA, Wang W. Regression analysis for recurrent events data under dependent censoring. Biometrics 2011;67:719-29.

Howe CJ, SR Cole, Ostrow D, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. A prospective study of alcohol consumption and HIV acquisition among injection drug users. AIDS 2011;25:221-8. PMCID: PMC3006640.

Kirk GD, Merlo CM. HIV infectionin the etiology of lung cancer: Confounding, causality, and consequencesProc Am Thoracic Soc 2011;8:326-32. PMCID: PMC3132793.

Khosla N, Juon HS, Kirk GD, Astemborski J, Mehta SH. Correlates of non-medical prescription drug use among a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore City. Addict Behavior 2011;36(12):1282-7. PMCID: PMC3179799.

Marshall MM, Kirk GD, Caporaso NE, McCormack MC, Merlo CA, Hague JC, Mehta SH, Engels EA. Tobacco use and nicotine dependence among HIV-infected and uninfected injection drug users. Addict Behav 2011;36:6-17. PMCID: PMC2981673.

Mehta SH, Buckle G. Assessment of liver disease (noninvasive methods). Curr Opinion HIV/AIDS Res 2011;6(6):465-71.

Mehta SH, Astemborski J, Kirk GD, Strathdee SA, Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Thomas DL. Changes in blood borne infection risk among injection drug users. J Infect Dis 2011;203:587-94. PMCID: PMC3072736.

Reuben J, Serio CS, Matens R, Sherman SG. Correlates of current transactional sex among a sample of female exotic dancers in Baltimore, MD. Journal of Urban Health 2011;88:342-348. PMCID: PMC3079042.

Salgado M, Kirk GD, Cox A, Rutebemberwa A, Higgins Y, Astemborski J, Thomas DL, Thio CL, Sulkowski MS, Blankson JN. Protective interleukin-28B genotype affects hepatitis C virus clearance, but does not contribute to HIV-1 control in a cohort of African-American elite controllers/suppressors. AIDS 2011;25:385-7. PMCID: PMC315898.

Salter ML, Lau B, Go VF, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. HIV infection, immune suppression, and uncontrolled viremia are associated with increased multimorbidity among aging injection drug users. Clin Infect Dis 2011;53: 1256-64. PMCID: PMC321458.

Seich al Basatena NK, MacNamara A, Vine AM, Thio CL, Astemborski J, Usuku K, Osame M, Kirk GD, Donfield SM, Goedert JJ, Bangham CRM, Carrington M, Khakoo SI, Asquith B. KIR2DL2 enhances protective and detrimental HLA class I‐mediated immunity in chronic viral infectionPLoS Pathog 2011;7:e1002270. PMCID: PMC3192839.

Sherman SG, Reuben J, Chapman CS, Lilleston P. Risks associated with crack cocaine smoking among exotic dancers in Baltimore, MD. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011;114:249-252.

Sherman SG, Lilleston P, Reuben J. More than a dance: the production of sexual health risk in the exotic dance clubs in Baltimore, USA. Soc Sci Med 2011;73:475-81. PMCID: PMC3154252.

Solomon SS, Srikrishnan AK. Celentano DD, Johnson SC, Vasudevan CK, Murugavel KG, Anand S, Kumar MS, Solomon S, Mehta SH. The intersection between sex and drugs: A cross-sectional study among the spouses of injection drug users in Chennai, India. BMC Pub Health 2011;11:39. PMCID: PMC3031221.

Troyer JL, Nelson GW, Lautenberger JA, Chinn L, McIntosh C, Johnson RC, Sezgin E, Kessing B, Malasky M, Hendrickson SL, Li G, Pontius J, Tang M, An P, Winkler CA, Limou S, Le Clerc S, Delaneau O, Zagury JF, Schuitemaker H, van Manen D, Bream JH, Gomperts ED, Buchbinder S, Goedert JJ, Kirk GD, O'Brien SJ. Genome-wide association study implicates PARD3B-based AIDS restriction. J Infect Dis 2011; 203:1491-502. PMCID: PMC3080910.

Westergaard RP, Kirk GD, Richesson DR, Galai N, Mehta SH. Incarceration predicts virologic failure for HIV-infected injection drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis 2011;53:725-31. PMCID: PMC3202322.

Zeremski M, Dimova RB, Astemborski J, Thomas DL, Talal AH. CXCL9 And CXCL10 chemokines as predictors of liver fibrosis in a cohort of primarily African-American injection drug users with chronic hepatitis. J Infect Dis 2011;204:832-6. PMCID: PMC3156920.

Althoff KN, Gange SJ, Klein MB, Brooks JT, Hogg RS, Bosch RJ, Horberg MA, Saag MS, Kitahata MM, Justice AC, Gebo KA, Eron JJ, Rourke SB, Gill MJ, Rodriguez B, Sterling TR, Calzavara LM, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Rachlis AR, Napravnik S, Jacobson LP, Kirk GD, Collier AC, Benson CA, Silverberg MJ, Kushel M, Goedert JJ, McKaig RG, Van Rompaey SE, Zhang J, Moore RD. Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States and Canada. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50:1512-20. PMCID: PMC2862849.

Althoff KN, Gebo KA, Gange SJ, Klein MB, Brooks JT, Hogg RS, Bosch RJ, Horberg MA, Saag MS, Kitahata MM, Eron JJ, Napravnik S, Rourke SB, Gill MJ, Rodriguez B, Sterling TR, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Jacobson LP, Kirk GD, Collier AC, Benson CA, Silverberg MJ, Goedert JJ, McKaig RG, Thorne J, Rachlis A, Moore RD, Justice AC. CD4 count at presentation for HIV care in the United States and Canada: Are those over 50 years more likely to have a delayed presentation? AIDS Res Therapy 2010;7:45. PMCID: PMC3066223.

Althoff KN, Justice AC, Gange SJ, Deeks SG, Saag MS, Silverberg MJ, Gill MJ, Lau B, Napravnik S, Tedaldi E, Klein MB, Gebo KA; North American AIDS Cohorts Collaboration on Research, Design (NA-ACCORD). Virologic and immunologic response to HAART, by age and regimen class. AIDS 2010;24:2469-79. PMCID: PMC3136814.

Chinn LW, Tang M, Kessing BD, Lautenberger JA, Troyer JL, Malasky MJ, McIntosh C, Kirk GD, Wolinsky SM, Buchbinder SP, Gomperts ED, Goedert JJ, O’Brien SJ. Genetic associations of variants in genes encoding HIV-dependency factors (HDFs) required for HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis 2010;202:1836-45. PMCID: PMC3107555.

Drummond MB, Kirk GD, Ricketts EP, McCormack MC, Hague JC, McDyer JF, Mehta SH, Engels EA, Wise RA, Merlo CM. Cross sectional analysis of respiratory symptoms in an injection drug user cohort: The impact of obstructive lung disease and HIV. BMC Pulm Med 2010;10:27. PMCID:PMC2876103.

Drummond MB, Kirk GD, McCormack MC, Marshall MM, Ricketts EP, Mehta SH, Wise RA, Merlo CM.
HIV and COPD: impact of risk behaviors and diseases on quality of life. Qual Life Res 2010;19:1295-1302.

Genberg B, Gange S, Go V, Celentano D, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. Trajectories of injection drug use over 20 years (1988-2008) in Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol 2010;173:829-36. PMCID: PMC3070496.

Gravitt PE, Kirk GD. Progress and pitfalls in defining the influence of HAART on HPV-associated cervical disease. J Infect Dis 2010;201:650-652. PMCID:PMC2849627.

Hendrickson S, Lautenberger J, Chinn L, Malasky M, Sezgin E, Kingsley LA, Goedert J, Kirk GD, Gomperts E, Buchbinder S, Troyer J, Obrien S. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. Plos ONE 2010;5:e12862. PMCID: PMC2943476.

Herbeck JT, Gottlieb GS, Winkler CA, Nelson GW, An P, Maust BS, Wong KG, Troyer JL, Goedert JJ, Kessing BD, Detels R, Wolinsky SM, Martinson J, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, Jacobson LP, Margolick JB, Kaslow RA, O'Brien SJ, Mullins JI. Multistage genomewide association study identifies a locus at 1q41 associated with rate of HIV-1 disease progression to clinical AIDS. J Infect Dis 2010;201:618-26. PMCID: PMC2928718.

Huang CY, Qin J, Wang MC. Semiparametric analysis for recurrent event data with time-dependent covariates and informative censoring. Biometrics 2010;66:39-49. PMCID:PMC2875299.

Kucirka LM, Farzadegan H, Feld JJ, Mehta SH, Winters M, Glenn JS, Kirk GD, Segev DL, Nelson KE, Marks M, Heller T, Golub ET. Prevalence, correlates, and viral dynamics of hepatitis delta among injection drug users. J Infect Dis 2010;202:845-852. PMCID: PMC2924454.

Martin MP, Qi Y, Goedert JJ, Hussain SK, Kirk GD, Hoots WK, Buchbinder S, Carrington M, Thio CL. IL28B polymorphism does not determine outcomes of hepatitis B virus or HIV infection. J Infect Dis 2010;202:1749-53. PMCID: PMC2974014.

Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Astemborski J, Galai N, Celentano D. Temporal trends in HAART initiation among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD, 1996-2008. Clin Infect Dis 2010;50:1664-1671. PMCID: PMC2874101.

Mehta SH, Vogt SL, Srikrishnan AK, Vasudevan CK, Murugavel KG, Saravanan S, Anand S, Kumar MS, Ray SC, Celentano DD, Solomon S, Solomon SS. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection and liver disease among injection drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, IndiaIndian J Med Res 2010;132:706-14. PMCID: PMC3102459.

Mosbruger TL, Duggal P, Goedert JJ, Kirk GD, Hoots WK, Tobler LH, Busch M, Peters MG, Rosen HR, Thomas DL, Thio CL. Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. J Infect Dis 2010;201:1371-80. PMCID: PMC2853721.

Nandi A, Glass TA, Cole SR, Chu H, Galea S, Celentano DD, Kirk GD, Vlahov D, Latimer WW, Mehta SH. Neighborhood poverty and injection cessation in a sample of injection drug users. Am J Epidemiol 2010; 171: 391-398. PMCID: PMC2877451.

Sander PM, Cole SR, Ostrow DG, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. Determinants of alcohol consumption in HIV-uninfected injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 2010;111: 173-176. PMCID: PMC2930039.

Shiels MS, Cole SR, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. Lung cancer incidence and mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010;55:510-515. PMCID: PMC2974802.

Solomon SS, Celentano DD, Srikrishnan AK, Vasudevan CK, Murugavel KG, Iqbal S, Anand S, Kumar MS, Latkin C, Solomon S, Mehta SH. Low incidence of HIV, hepatitis C virus and declining risk behaviors in a cohort of injection drug users in Chennai, India. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:1259-1267. PMCID: PMC3025630.

Yanik E, Lucas GM, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. HIV and proteinuria in an injection drug user population. Clin J Am Soc Nephrology 2010;5:1836-1843. PMCID: PMC2974385.

An P, Johnson R, Phair J, Kirk GD, Yu XF, Donfield S, Buchbinder S, Goedert JJ, Winkler CA. APOBEC3B deletion and risk of HIV-1 acquisition. J Infect Dis 2009;200: 1054-8.

Deeks SG, Gange SJ, Kitahata MM, Saag MS, Justice AC, Hogg RS, Eron JJ, Brooks JT, Rourke SB, Gill MJ, Bosch RJ, Benson CA, Collier AC, Martin JN, Klein MB, Jacobson LP, Rodriguez B, Sterling TR, Kirk GD, Napravnik S, Rachlis AR, Calzavara LM, Horberg MA, Silverberg MJ, Gebo KA, Kushel MB, Goedert JJ, McKaig RG, Moore RD. Trends in multidrug treatment failure and subsequent mortality among antiretroviral therapy-experienced patients with HIV infection in North America. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49:1582-90. PMCID: PMC2871149.

Kavasery R, Galai N, Astemborski J, Lucas GM, Celentano D, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. Non-structured HIV treatment interruptions among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD. JAIDS 2009;50:360-6. PMCID: PMC2782439.

Kirk GD, Astemborski J, Mehta SH, Spoler C, Fisher C, Allen D, Higgins Y, Moore R, Afdhal N, Torbenson M, Sulkowski M, Thomas DL. Assessment of liver fibrosis by transient elastography in persons with HCV or HIV/HCV coinfection. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:963-72. PMCID: PMC2715996.

Lau B, Gange SK, Kirk GD, Moore RD. Evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus biomarkers: inferences from interval and clinical cohort studies. Epidemiology 2009;20:664-72. PMCID: PMC2818534.

Marshall MM, McCormack MC, Kirk GD. Effect of cigarette smoking on HIV acquisition, progression, and mortality. AIDS Educ Prev 2009;21(3 Suppl): 28-39. PMCID: PMC2774230.

Mehta SH, Lau B, Afdhal NH, Thomas DL. Exceeding the limits of liver histology markers. J Hepatol 2009;50:36-41. PMCID: PMC2637134.

Phelan D, Gange S, Ahdieh-Grant L, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Shah K, Gravitt P. Determinants of newly detected human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected injection drug using women. Sex Transm Dis 2009;36:149-56. PMCID: PMC2888629.

Sebastiani G, Halfon P, Castera L, Pol S, Thomas DL, Mangia A,Marco V, Pirisi M, Voiculescu M, Guido M, Bourliere M,Noventa F, Alberti A. SAFE biopsy: a validated method for large-scale staging of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2009; 49:1821-1927.

Sezgin E, Lind JM, Shrestha S, Hendrickson S, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Donfield SM, Kirk GD, Phair J, O'Brien SL, Smith MW. Association of Y chromosome haplogroup I with HIV progression, and HAART outcome. Hum Genet 2009;125:281-94. PMCID:PMC2885350.

Shiels MS, Cole SR, Kirk GD, Poole C. A meta-analysis of the incidence of non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected individuals. JAIDS 2009 52:611-22. PMCID: PMC2790038.

The North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design. Effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for HIV on survival. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1815-26. PMCID: PMC2854555.

Thomas R, Apps R, Qi Y, O’Connor G, Ge D, Fellay J, Martin JN, Margolick J, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, Telenti A, Deeks SG, Walker BD, Goldstein D, McVicar DW, Moffett A, Carrington M. HLA-C cell surface expression and control of HIV/AIDS correlate with a variant upstream of HLA-C. Nat Genet 2009; 41:1290-1294. PMCID: PMC2887091.

Thomas DL, Thio CL, Martin MP, Qi Y, Ge D, O'Huigin C, Kidd J, Kidd K, Khakoo SI, Alexander G, Goedert JJ, Kirk GD, Donfield SM, Rosen HR, Tobler LH, Busch MP, McHutchison JG, Goldstein DB, Carrington M. Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature 2009;461:798-801.

Winkler CA, An P, Johnson R, Nelson GW, Kirk GD. Expression of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) has no effect on HIV-1 acquisition or progression to AIDS in African Americans. Cell Host Microbe 2009;5:411-3.

An P, Thio CL, Kirk GD, Donfield S, Goedert JJ, Winkler CA. Regulatory polymorphisms in the interleukin-18 promoter are associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. J Infect Dis 2008;198:1159-65. PMCID: PMC2674361.

Balagopal A, Philp FH, Astemborski J, Block TM, Mehta A, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Cox A, Thomas DL, Ray SC. HIV-related microbial translocation and progression of hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2008;135:226-33. PMCID: PMC2644903.

Blankson JN, Klinzman D, Astemborski J, Thomas DL, Kirk GD, Stapleton J. Low frequency of GB virus C viremia in a cohort of HIV-1 infected elite suppressors. AIDS 2008;22:2398-400 (letter).

Celentano DD, Latimore AD, Mehta SH. Variations in sexual risks in drug users: emerging themes in a behavioral context. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2008;5:212-8. PMCID: PMC2801160.

Golub JE, Astemborski J, Ahmed MA, Cronin WA, Mehta SH, Kirk GD, Vlahov D, Chaisson RE. Long-term effectiveness of tuberculin skin testing and treatment for latent infection in reducing tuberculosis incidence in a cohort of injection drug users. JAIDS 2008;49:532-7. PMCID: PMC2637943.

Hendrickson SL, Hutcheson HB, Ruiz-Pesini E, Poole JC, Lautenberger J, Sezgin E, Kingsley L, Goedert JJ, Vlahov D, Donfield S, Wallace DC, O'Brien SJ. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups influence AIDS progression. AIDS 2008 30;22:2429-39. PMCID: PMC2699618.

Kopp JB, Smith MW, Nelson GW, Johnson RC, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Oleksyk T, McKenzie LM, Kajiyama H, Ahuja TS, Berns JS, Briggs W, Cho ME, Dart RA, Kimmel PL, Korbet SM, Michel DM, Mokrzycki MH, Schelling JR, Simon E, Trachtman H, Vlahov D, Winkler CA. MYH9 is a major-effect risk gene for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Nat Genetics 2008;40:1175-84. PMCID: PMC2827354.

Mehta SH, Genberg BL, Astemborski J, Kavasery R, Kirk GD, Vlahov D, Strathdee S, Thomas DL.Limited uptake of hepatitis C treatment among injection drug users. J Community Health 2008;33:126-33.

Pandey JP, Luo Y, Elston RC, Wu Y, Philp FH, Astemborski J, Thomas DL, Netski DM. Immunoglobulin allotypes influence IgG antibody responses to hepatitis C virus envelope proteins E1 and E2. Hum Immunol 2008;69:58-64. PMCID: PMC2364665.

Shardell M, Scharfstein DO, Vlahov D, Galai N. Inference for cumulative incidence functions with informatively coarsened discrete event-time data. Stat Med 2008;27:5861-79. PMCID: PMC2796438.

Truelove AL, Oleksyk TK, Shrestha S, Thio CL, Goedert JJ, Donfield SM, Kirk GD, Thomas DL, O'Brien SL, Smith MW. Evaluation of IL10, IL19, and IL20 gene polymorphisms and chronic hepatitis B infection outcome. Intl J Immunogenetics 2008;35:255-64. PMCID: PMC2874896.

An P, Duggal P, Wang LH, O'Brien SJ, Donfield S, Goedert JJ, Phair J, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, Winkler CA. Polymorphisms of CUL5 are associated with CD4+ T cell loss in HIV-1 infected individuals PLoS Genet 2007;3:e19.

Atta MG, Fine DM, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Moore RD, Lucas GM. Survival on renal replacement therapy among African Americans infected with HIV-1 in urban Baltimore. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:1625-32.

Gange SJ, Kitahata MM, Saag MS, Bangsberg DR, Bosch RJ, Brooks JT, Calzavara L, Deeks SG, Eron JJ, Gebo KA, Gill MJ, Haas DW, Hogg RS, Horberg MA, Jacobson LP, Justice AC, Kirk GD, Klein MB, Martin JN, McKaig RG, Rodriguez B, Rourke SB, Sterling TR, Freeman AM, Moore RD. Cohort profile: the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Int J Epidemiol 2007;36:294-301.

Huang Y, Yang H, Borg BB, Su X, Rhodes SL, Yang K, Tong X, Tang G, Howell CD, Rosen HR, Thio CL, Thomas DL, Alter HJ, Sapp RK, Liang TJ. A functional SNP of interferon-gamma gene is important for interferon-alpha-induced and spontaneous recovery from hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007;104:985-90.

Kannangai R, Vivekanandan P, Netski D, Mehta S, Kirk GD, Thomas DL, Torbenson M. Liver enzyme flares and occult hepatitis B in persons with chronic hepatitis C infection. J Clin Virol 2007;39:101-105.

Kirk GD, Merlo C, O'Driscoll P, Mehta SH, Galai N, Vlahov D, Samet J, Engels EA. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:103-110.

Kirk GD, Vlahov D. Improving survival among HIV-infected injection drug users: How should we define success? Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:377-380.

Lucas GM, Mehta SH, O’Driscoll P, Atta MG, Kirk GD, Galai N, Vlahov D, Moore RD. The epidemiology of kidney disease from 1988 to 2004 in a cohort of African American HIV-1-infected and at-risk HIV-1-seronegative participants. AIDS 2007;21: 2435-43.

Martin MP, Qi Y, Gao X, Yamada E, Martin JN, Pereyra F, Colombo S, Brown EE, Shupert WL, Phair J, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, Telenti A, Connors M, O'Brien SJ, Walker BD, Parham P, Deeks SG, McVicar DW, Carrington M. Innate partnership of HLA-B and KIR3DL1 subtypes against HIV-1. Nat Genet 2007;39:733-740.

McKenzie LM, Henrickson SL, Briggs WA, Dart RA, Korbet SM, Mokrzycki MH, Kimmel PL, Ahuja TS, Berns JS, Simon EE, Smith MC, Trachtman H, Michel DM, Schelling JR, Cho M, Zhou YC, Binns-Roemer E, Kirk GD, Kopp JB, Winkler CA. NPHS2 variation in sporadic focal segmental glomeruloscerosis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;18:2987-95.

Mehta SH, Lucas GM, Astemborski J, Kirk GD, Vlahov D, Galai N. Early immunologic and virologic responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy and subsequent disease progression among HIV-infected injection drug users. AIDS Care 2007;19:637-645.

Morris JD, Golub ET, Mehta SH, Jacobson LP, Gange SJ. Injection drug use and patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy use: an analysis of ALIVE, WIHS, and MACS cohorts. AIDS Res Ther 2007;4:12.

Netski DM, Mosbruger T, Astemborski J, Mehta SH, Thomas DL, Cox AL. CD4+ T cell-dependent reduction in hepatitis C virus-specific humoral immune responses after HIV infection. J Infect Dis 2007;195:857-863.

Semba RD, Ricketts EP, Mehta S, Netski D, Thomas D, Kirk G, Wu AW, Vlahov D. Effect of micronutrients and iron supplementation on hemoglobin, iron status, and plasma hepatitis C and HIV RNA levels in female injection drug users: a controlled clinical trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45:298-303.

Semba RD, Ricketts EP, Mehta SF, Kirk GD, Latkin C, Galai N, Vlahov D. Adherence and retention of female injection drug users in a phase III clinical trial in inner city Baltimore. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2007;33:71-80.

Vlahov D, O'Driscoll P, Mehta SH, Ompad DC, Gern R, Galai N, Kirk GD. Risk factors for methadone outside treatment programs: implications for HIV treatment among injection drug users. Addiction 2007;102 Suppl 1:771-7.

Wang XH, Netski DM, Astemborski J, Mehta SH, Torbenson MS, Thomas DL, Ray SC. Progression of fibrosis during chronic hepatitis C is associated with rapid virus evolution. J Virol 2007;81:6513-6522.

Bashirova AA, Bleiber G, Qi Y, Hutcheson H, Yamashita T, Johnson RC, Cheng J, Alter G, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Hoots K, Vlahov D, May M, Maldarelli F, Jacobson L, O'Brien S J, Telenti A, Carrington M. Consistent effects of TSG101 genetic variability on multiple outcomes of exposure to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol 2006;80:6757-63.

Deloria-Knoll M, Steinhoff M, Semba RD, Nelson K, Vlahov D, Meinert CL. Effect of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on antibody responses to a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-positive injection drug users: a randomized trial. Vaccine 2006;24:1670-9.

Javanbakht H, An P, Gold B, Petersen DC, O'Huigin C, Nelson GW, O'Brien SJ, Kirk GD, Detels R, Buchbinder S, Donfield S, Shulenin S, Song B, Perron MJ, Stremlau M, Sodroski J, Dean M, Winkler C. Effects of human TRIM5alpha polymorphisms on antiretroviral function and susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus infection. Virology 2006;354:15-27.

Mehta SH, Astemborski J, Sterling TR, Thomas DL, Vlahov D. Serum albumin as a prognostic indicator for HIV disease progression. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2006;22:14-21.

Mehta SH, Galai N, Astemborski J, Celentano DD, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D, Nelson KE. HIV incidence among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland (1988-2004). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006;43:368-72.

Modi WS, Lautenberger J, An P, Scott K, Goedert JJ, Kirk GD, Buchbinder S, Phair J, Donfield S, O'Brien SJ, Winkler C. Genetic variation in the CCL18-CCL3-CCL4 chemokine gene cluster influences HIV Type 1 transmission and AIDS disease progression. Am J Hum Genet 2006;79:120-8.

Pollini RA, McCall L, Mehta SH, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Response to overdose among injection drug users. Am J Prev Med 2006;31:261-4.

Pollini RA, McCall L, Mehta SH, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Non-fatal overdose and subsequent drug treatment among injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006;83:104-110.

Qi Y, Martin MP, Gao X, Jacobson L, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, O'Brien SJ, Trowsdale J, Carrington M. KIR/HLA pleiotropism: Protection against both HIV and opportunistic infections. PLoS Pathog 2006;2:e79.

Shah NG, Galai N, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Longitudinal predictors of injection cessation and subsequent relapse among a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore, MD, 1988-2000. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006;83:147-56.

Shrestha S, Smith MW, Broman KW, Farzadegan H, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Multiperson use of syringes among injection drug users in a needle exchange program: a gene-based molecular epidemiologic analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006;43:335-43.

Shrestha S, Strathdee SA, Broman KW, Smith MW. Unknown biological mixtures evaluation using STR analytical quantification. Electrophoresis 2006;27:409-15.

Shrestha S, Strathdee SA, Galai N, Oleksyk T, Fallin MD, Mehta S, Schaid D, Vlahov D, O'Brien SJ, Smith MW. Behavioral risk exposure and host genetics of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis 2006;193:16-26.

Smit E, Crespo CJ, Semba RD, Jaworowicz D, Vlahov D, Ricketts EP, Ramirez-Marrero FA, Tang AM. Physical activity in a cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative injection drug users. AIDS Care 2006;18:1040-5.

Vlahov D, Celentano DD. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy for injection drug users: adherence, resistance, and death. Cad Saude Publica 2006;22:705-718.

Washington TA, Galai N, Cohn S, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. The relationship between self-reported sexual orientation and behavior in a sample of middle-aged male injection drug users. Arch Sex Behav 2006;35:67-74.

Wilson LE, Torbenson M, Astemborski J, Faruki H, Spoler C, Rai R, Mehta S, Kirk GD, Nelson K, Afdhal N, Thomas DL. Progression of liver fibrosis among injection drug users with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2006;43:788-95.

Wisniewski AB, Brown TT, John M, J. C,Jr, Golub ET, Ricketts EP, Wand G, Dobs AS. Cortisol levels and depression in men and women using heroin and cocaine. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2006;31:250-5.

Chiang CT, James LF, Wang MC. Random weighted bootstrap method for recurrent events with informative censoring. Lifetime Data Anal 2005;11:489-509.

Cox AL, Netski DM, Mosbruger T, Sherman SG, Strathdee S, Ompad D, Vlahov D, Chien D, V S, Ray SC, Thomas DL. Prospective evaluation of community-acquired acute-phase hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:951-8.

Dancheck B, Tang AM, Thomas AM, Smit E, Vlahov D, Semba RD. Injection drug use is an independent risk factor for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;40:198-201.

Duggal P, Winkler CA, An P, Yu XF, Farzadegan H, O'Brien SJ, Beaty TH, Vlahov D. The effect of RANTES chemokine genetic variants on early HIV-1 plasma RNA among African American injection drug usersJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;38:584-9.

Galai N, Vlahov D, Bareta JC, Wang C, Cohn S, Sterling TR. Prognostic factors for survival differ according to CD4+ cell count among HIV-infected injection drug users: pre-HAART and HAART erasJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;38:74-81.

Golub ET, Bareta JC, Mehta SH, McCall LD, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Correlates of unsafe syringe acquisition and disposal among injection drug users in Baltimore, MarylandSubst Use Misuse 2005;40:1751-64.

Golub ET, Purvis LA, Sapun M, Safaeian M, Beyrer C, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Changes in willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials among HIV-negative injection drug users. AIDS Behav 2005;9:301-9.

Lai S, Lima JA, Lai H, Vlahov D, Celentano D, Tong W, Bartlett JG, Margolick J, Fishman EK. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection, cocaine, and coronary calcificationArch Intern Med 2005;165:690-5.

Mehta SH, Thomas DL, Sulkowski MS, Safaein M, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. A framework for understanding factors that affect access and utilization of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection among HCV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected injection drug usersAIDS 2005;19 Suppl 3:S179-89.

Modi WS, Scott K, Goedert JJ, Vlahov D, Buchbinder S, Detels R, Donfield S, O'Brien S J, Winkler C. Haplotype analysis of the SDF-1 (CXCL12) gene in a longitudinal HIV-1/AIDS cohort study. Genes Immun 2005;6:691-8.

Oleksyk TK, Thio CL, Truelove AL, Goedert JJ, Donfield SM, Kirk GD, Thomas DL, O'Brien SJ, Smith MW. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the IL10 region associated with HCV clearance. Genes Immun 2005;6:347-57.

Orloff MS, Iyengar SK, Winkler CA, Goddard KA, Dart RA, Ahuja TS, Mokrzycki M, Briggs WA, Korbet SM, Kimmel PL, Simon EE, Trachtman H, Vlahov D, Michel DM, Berns JS, Smith MC, Schelling JR, Sedor JR, Kopp JB. Variants in the Wilms' tumor gene are associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in the African American population. Physiol Genomics 2005;21:212-21.

Rusch ML, Farzadegan H, Tarwater PM, Safaeian M, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Sexual risk behavior among injection drug users before widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Behav 2005;9:289-99.

Smit E, Semba RD, Pilibosian E, Vlahov D, Tun W, Purvis L, Tang AM. Body habitus in a cohort of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative injection drug users. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2005;19:19-30.

Thio CL, Mosbruger T, Astemborski J, Greer S, Kirk GD, O'Brien SJ, Thomas DL. Mannose binding lectin genotypes influence recovery from hepatitis B virus infection. J Virol 2005;79:9192-6.

Vlahov D, Galai N, Safaeian M, Galea S, Kirk GD, Lucas GM, Sterling TR. Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users with late-stage human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Epidemiol 2005;161:999-1012.

Wang C, Vlahov D, Galai N, Cole SR, Bareta J, Pollini R, Mehta SH, Nelson KE, Galea S. The effect of HIV infection on overdose mortalityAIDS 2005;19:935-42.

An P, Bleiber G, Duggal P, Nelson G, May M, Mangeat B, Alobwede I, Trono D, Vlahov D, Donfield S, Goedert JJ, Phair J, Buchbinder S, O'Brien SJ, Telenti A, Winkler CA. APOBEC3G genetic variants and their influence on the progression to AIDS. J Virol 2004;78:11070-6.

Dezzutti CS, Astemborski J, Thomas DL, Marshall JH, Cabrera T, Purdy M, Vlahov D, Garfein RS. Prevalence of cryoglobulinemia in hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. J Clin Virol 2004;31:210-4.

Frangakis CE, Brookmeyer RS, Varadhan R, Safaeian M, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Methodology for evaluating a partially controlled longitudinal treatment using principal stratification, with application to a needle exchange program. J Am Stat Assoc 2004;99:239-49.

Karacki PS, Gao X, Thio CL, Thomas DL, Goedert JJ, Vlahov D, Kaslow RA, Strathdee S, Hilgartner MW, O'Brien SJ, Carrington M. MICA and recovery from hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections. Genes Immun 2004;5:261-6.

Khakoo SI, Thio CL, Martin MP, Brooks CR, Gao X, Astemborski J, Cheng J, Goedert JJ, Vlahov D, Hilgartner M, Cox S, Little AM, Alexander GJ, Cramp ME, O'Brien SJ, Rosenberg WM, Thomas DL, Carrington M. HLA and NK cell inhibitory receptor genes in resolving hepatitis C virus infection. Science 2004;305:872-4.

Martin MP, Lederman MM, Hutcheson HB, Goedert JJ, Nelson GW, van Kooyk Y, Detels R, Buchbinder S, Hoots K, Vlahov D, O'Brien SJ, Carrington M. Association of DC-SIGN promoter polymorphism with increased risk for parenteral, but not mucosal, acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol 2004;78:14053-6.

Poundstone KE, Strathdee SA, Celentano DD. The social epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Epidemiol Rev 2004; 26:22-35.

Sethi AK, Celentano DD, Gange SJ, Gallant JE, Vlahov D, Farzadegan H. High-risk behavior and potential transmission of drug-resistant HIV among injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;35:503-10.

Smith MW, Patterson N, Lautenberger JA, Truelove AL, McDonald GJ, Waliszewska A, Kessing BD, Malasky MJ, Scafe C, Le E, De Jager PL, Mignault AA, Yi Z, De The G, Essex M, Sankale JL, Moore JH, Poku K, Phair JP, Goedert JJ, Vlahov D, Williams SM, Tishkoff SA, Winkler CA, De La Vega FM, Woodage T, Sninsky JJ, Hafler DA, Altshuler D, Gilbert DA, O'Brien SJ, Reich D. A high-density admixture map for disease gene discovery in African Americans. Am J Hum Genet 2004;74:1001-13.

Templeton AR, Reichert RA, Weisstein AE, Yu XF, Markham RB. Selection in context: patterns of natural selection in the glycoprotein 120 region of human immunodeficiency virus 1 within infected individuals. Genetics 2004;167:1547-61.

Thio CL, Goedert JJ, Mosbruger T, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA, O'Brien SJ, Astemborski J, Thomas DL. An analysis of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with natural clearance of hepatitis C virus infection. Genes Immun 2004;5:294-300.

Thio CL, Mosbruger TL, Kaslow RA, Karp CL, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D, O'Brien SJ, Astemborski J, Thomas DL. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene and recovery from hepatitis B virus infection. J Virol 2004;78:11258-62.

Tong W, Lima JA, Lai H, Celentano DD, Dai S, Lai S. Relation of coronary artery calcium to left ventricular mass in African-Americans. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:490-2.

Tong W, Lima JA, Meng Q, Flynn E, Lai S. Long-term cocaine use is related to cardiac diastolic dysfunction in an African-American population in Baltimore, Maryland. Int J Cardiol 2004;97:25-8.

Torbenson M, Kannangai R, Astemborski J, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D, Thomas DL. High prevalence of occult hepatitis B in Baltimore injection drug users. Hepatology 2004;39:51-7.

Tun W, Gange SJ, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA, Celentano DD. Increase in sexual risk behavior associated with immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected injection drug users. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1167-74.

Vlahov D, Wang CL, Galai N, Bareta J, Mehta SH, Strathdee SA, Nelson KE. Mortality risk among new onset injection drug users. Addiction 2004;99:946-54.

Wang C, Vlahov D, Galai N, Bareta J, Strathdee SA, Nelson KE, Sterling TR. Mortality in HIV-seropositive versus -seronegative persons in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: implications for when to initiate therapy. J Infect Dis 2004;190:1046-54.

Winkler CA, Hendel H, Carrington M, Smith MW, Nelson GW, O'Brien S J, Phair J, Vlahov D, Jacobson LP, Rappaport J, Vasilescu A, Bertin-Maghit S, An P, Lu W, Andrieu JM, Schachter F, Therwath A, Zagury JF. Dominant effects of CCR2-CCR5 haplotypes in HIV-1 disease progression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;37:1534-8.

An P, Vlahov D, Margolick JB, Phair J, O'Brien TR, Lautenberger J, O'Brien SJ, Winkler CA. A tumor necrosis factor-alpha-inducible promoter variant of interferon-gamma accelerates CD4+ T cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals. J Infect Dis 2003;188:228-31.

Duggal P, An P, Beaty TH, Strathdee SA, Farzadegan H, Markham RB, Johnson L, O'Brien SJ, Vlahov D, Winkler CA. Genetic influence of CXCR6 chemokine receptor alleles on PCP-mediated AIDS progression among African Americans. Genes Immun 2003;4:245-50.

Galai N, Safaeian M, Vlahov D, Bolotin A, Celentano DD. Longitudinal patterns of drug injection behavior in the ALIVE Study cohort,1988-2000: description and determinants. Am J Epidemiol 2003;158:695-704.

Golub ET, Astemborski JA, Hoover DR, Anthony JC, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Psychological distress and progression to AIDS in a cohort of injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003;32:429-34.

Henderson LA, Vlahov D, Celentano DD, Strathdee SA. Readiness for cessation of drug use among recent attenders and nonattenders of a needle exchange program. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003;32:229-37.

Juday TR, Wu A, Celentano DD, Frick KD, Wang MC, Vlahov D. The role of Medicaid HMO enrollment in the longitudinal utilization of medical care services in a cohort of injecting drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Subst Abus 2003;24:27-41.

Lai S, Lai H, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Ren S, Margolick J, Lima JA, Bartlett JG. Factors associated with accelerated atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected persons treated with protease inhibitors. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2003;17:211-9.

Meng Q, Lima JA, Lai H, Vlahov D, Celentano DD, Margolick JB, Lai S. Elevated C-reactive protein levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction in chronic cocaine users. Int J Cardiol 2003;88:191-8.

Modi WS, O'Brien TR, Vlahov D, Buchbinder S, Gomperts E, Phair J, O'Brien SJ, Winkler C. Haplotype diversity in the interleukin-4 gene is not associated with HIV-1 transmission and AIDS progression. Immunogenetics 2003;55:157-64.

Mulherin SA, O'Brien TR, Ioannidis JP, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder SP, Coutinho RA, Jamieson BD, Meyer L, Michael NL, Pantaleo G, Rizzardi GP, Schuitemaker H, Sheppard HW, Theodorou ID, Vlahov D, Rosenberg PS. Effects of CCR5-Delta32 and CCR2-64I alleles on HIV-1 disease progression: the protection varies with duration of infection. AIDS 2003;17:377-87.

Royal W, Vlahov D, Lyles C, Gajewski CD. Retinoids and drugs of abuse: implications for neurological disease risk in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37 Suppl 5:S427-32.

Tun W, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Attitudes toward HIV treatments influence unsafe sexual and injection practices among injecting drug users. AIDS 2003;17:1953-62.

Zwahlen M, Vlahov D. Commentary: Modelling and understanding differences in human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus epidemiology in injection drug users. Int J Epidemiol 2003;32:715-6.

An P, Nelson GW, Wang L, Donfield S, Goedert JJ, Phair J, Vlahov D, Buchbinder S, Farrar WL, Modi W, O'Brien SJ, Winkler CA. Modulating influence on HIV/AIDS by interacting RANTES gene variants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:10002-7.

Celentano DD, Cohn S, Davis RO, Vlahov D. Self-efficacy estimates for drug use practices predict risk reduction among injection drug users. J Urban Health 2002;79:245-56.

Fuller CM, Vlahov D, Ompad DC, Shah N, Arria A, Strathdee SA. High-risk behaviors associated with transition from illicit non-injection to injection drug use among adolescent and young adult drug users: a case-control study. Drug Alcohol Depend 2002;66:189-98.

Lai S, Lai H, Meng Q, Tong W, Vlahov D, Celentano D, Strathdee S, Nelson K, Fishman EK, Lima JA. Effect of cocaine use on coronary calcium among black adults in Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Cardiol 2002;90:326-8.

Macalino GE, Celentano DD, Latkin C, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D. Risk behaviors by audio computer-assisted self-interviews among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative injection drug users. AIDS Educ Prev 2002;14:367-78.

Martin MP, Gao X, Lee JH, Nelson GW, Detels R, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Hoots K, Vlahov D, Trowsdale J, Wilson M, O'Brien SJ, Carrington M. Epistatic interaction between KIR3DS1 and HLA-B delays the progression to AIDS. Nat Genet 2002;31:429-34.

Mehta SH, Cox A, Hoover DR, Wang XH, Mao Q, Ray S, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D, Thomas DL. Protection against persistence of hepatitis C. Lancet 2002;359:1478-83.

Meng Q, Lima JA, Lai H, Vlahov D, Celentano DD, Strathdee S, Nelson KE, Tong W, Lai S. Use of HIV protease inhibitors is associated with left ventricular morphologic changes and diastolic dysfunction. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;30:306-10.

Meng Q, Lima JA, Lai H, Vlahov D, Celentano DD, Strathdee SA, Nelson KE, Wu KC, Chen S, Tong W, Lai S. Coronary artery calcification, atherogenic lipid changes, and increased erythrocyte volume in black injection drug users infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 treated with protease inhibitors. Am Heart J 2002;144:642-8.

Nelson KE, Galai N, Safaeian M, Strathdee SA, Celentano DD, Vlahov D. Temporal trends in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection and risk behavior among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland, 1988-1998. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:641-53.

Rai R, Wilson LE, Astemborski J, Anania F, Torbenson M, Spoler C, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA, Boitnott J, Nelson KE, Thomas DL. Severity and correlates of liver disease in hepatitis C virus-infected injection drug usersHepatology 2002;35:1247-55.

Riley ED, Safaeian M, Strathdee SA, Brooner RK, Beilenson P, Vlahov D. Drug user treatment referrals and entry among participants of a needle exchange program. Subst Use Misuse 2002;37:1869-86.

Riley ED, Wu AW, Junge B, Marx M, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D. Health services utilization by injection drug users participating in a needle exchange program. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2002;28:497-511.

Safaeian M, Brookmeyer R, Vlahov D, Latkin C, Marx M, Strathdee SA. Validity of self-reported needle exchange attendance among injection drug users: implications for program evaluation. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:169-75.

Semba RD, Shah N, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D. High prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among female injection drug users with and without HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;29:142-4.

Semba RD, Shah N, Vlahov D. Risk factors and cumulative incidence of anaemia among HIV-infected injection drug users. Int J STD AIDS 2002;13:119-23.

Sterling TR, Hoover DR, Astemborski J, Vlahov D, Bartlett JG, Schupbach J. Heat-denatured human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein 24 antigen: prognostic value in adults with early-stage disease. J Infect Dis 2002;186:1181-5.

Thio CL, Gao X, Goedert JJ, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Hilgartner MW, O'Brien SJ, Karacki P, Astemborski J, Carrington M, Thomas DL. HLA-Cw*04 and hepatitis C virus persistence. J Virol 2002;76:4792-7.

Wang MC, Chiang CT. Non-parametric methods for recurrent event data with informative and non-informative censorings. Stat Med 2002;21:445-56.

Wilson LE, Thomas DL, Astemborski J, Freedman TL, Vlahov D. Prospective study of infective endocarditis among injection drug users. J Infect Dis 2002;185:1761-6.

Celentano DD, Galai N, Sethi AK, Shah NG, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D, Gallant JE. Time to initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected injection drug users. AIDS 2001;15:1707-15.

Celentano DD, Munoz A, Cohn S, Vlahov D. Dynamics of behavioral risk factors for HIV/AIDS: a 6-year prospective study of injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001;61:315-22.

Gao X, Nelson GW, Karacki P, Martin MP, Phair J, Kaslow R, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Hoots K, Vlahov D, O'Brien SJ, Carrington M. Effect of a single amino acid change in MHC class I molecules on the rate of progression to AIDS. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1668-75.

Ioannidis JP, Rosenberg PS, Goedert JJ, Ashton LJ, Benfield TL, Buchbinder SP, Coutinho RA, Eugen-Olsen J, Gallart T, Katzenstein TL, Kostrikis LG, Kuipers H, Louie LG, Mallal SA, Margolick JB, Martinez OP, Meyer L, Michael NL, Operskalski E, Pantaleo G, Rizzardi GP, Schuitemaker H, Sheppard HW, Stewart GJ, Theodorou ID, Ullum H, Vicenzi E, Vlahov D, Wilkinson D, Workman C, Zagury JF, O'Brien TR. Effects of CCR5-Delta32, CCR2-64I, and SDF-1 3'A alleles on HIV-1 disease progression: An international meta-analysis of individual-patient data. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:782-95.

Knowlton AR, Hoover DR, Chung SE, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Latkin CA. Access to medical care and service utilization among injection drug users with HIV/AIDS. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001;64:55-62.

Knowlton AR, Latkin CA, Schroeder JR, Hoover DR, Ensminger M, Celetano DD. Longitudinal predictors of depressive symptoms among low income injection drug users. AIDS Care 2001;13:549-59.

Latkin C, Knowlton A, V F, Hoover D, Hachey M, Celentano D. Injection drug users' disclosure of HIV seropositive status to network members. AIDS Behav 2001;5:297-305.

Mao Q, Ray SC, Laeyendecker O, Ticehurst JR, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D, Thomas DL. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion and evolution of the hepatitis C virus quasispecies. J Virol 2001;75:3259-67.

Pilowsky DJ, Lyles CM, Cross SI, Celentano D, Nelson KE, Vlahov D. Characteristics of injection drug using parents who retain their children. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001;61:113-22.

Riley ED, Chaisson RE, Robnett TJ, Vertefeuille J, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D. Use of audio computer-assisted self-interviews to assess tuberculosis-related risk behaviors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:82-5.

Sadaphal P, Astemborski J, Graham NM, Sheely L, Bonds M, Madison A, Vlahov D, Thomas DL, Sterling TR. Isoniazid preventive therapy, hepatitis C virus infection, and hepatotoxicity among injection drug users infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:1687-91.

Schroeder JR, Latkin CA, Hoover DR, Curry AD, Knowlton AR, Celentano DD. Illicit drug use in one's social network and in one's neighborhood predicts individual heroin and cocaine use. Ann Epidemiol 2001;11:389-94.

Semba RD, Shah N, Vlahov D. Improvement of anemia among HIV-infected injection drug users receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;26:315-9.

Sterling TR, Vlahov D, Astemborski J, Hoover DR, Margolick JB, Quinn TC. Initial plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and progression to AIDS in women and men. N Engl J Med 2001;344:720-5.

Strathdee SA, Galai N, Safaiean M, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Johnson L, Nelson KE. Sex differences in risk factors for hiv seroconversion among injection drug users: a 10-year perspective. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1281-8.

Strathdee SA, Galai N, Safaiean M, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Johnson L, Nelson KE. [The difference between men and women drug users in seroconversion risk factors]. Sidahora 2001;25-6.

Thio CL, Thomas DL, Goedert JJ, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Hilgartner MW, O'Brien SJ, Karacki P, Marti D, Astemborski J, Carrington M. Racial differences in HLA class II associations with hepatitis C virus outcomes. J Infect Dis 2001;184:16-21.

Valente TW, Foreman RK, Junge B, Vlahov D. Needle-exchange participation, effectiveness, and policy: syringe relay, gender, and the paradox of public health. J Urban Health 2001;78:340-9.

Vlahov D, Des Jarlais DC, Goosby E, Hollinger PC, Lurie PG, Shriver MD, Strathdee SA. Needle exchange programs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection: epidemiology and policy. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:S70-7.

Vlahov D, Safaien M, Lai S, Strathdee SA, Johnson L, Sterling T, Celentano DD. Sexual and drug risk-related behaviours after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users. AIDS 2001;15:2311-6.

Wilson LE, Umemura T, Astemborski J, Ray SC, Alter HJ, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D, Thomas DL. Dynamics of SEN virus infection among injection drug users. J Infect Dis 2001;184:1315-9.

Ahdieh L, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Trimble CL, Timpson LA, Shah K. Cervical neoplasia and repeated positivity of human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and -seronegative women. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:1148-57.

An P, Martin MP, Nelson GW, Carrington M, Smith MW, Gong K, Vlahov D, O'Brien SJ, Winkler CA. Influence of CCR5 promoter haplotypes on AIDS progression in African-Americans. AIDS 2000;14:2117-22.

Knowlton A, Latkin C, Chung SE, Hoover D, Ensminger M, Celentano D. HIV and depressive symptoms among low-income illicit drug users. AIDS Behav 2000;4:353-360.

Marx MA, Crape B, Brookmeyer RS, Junge B, Latkin C, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. Trends in crime and the introduction of a needle exchange program. Am J Public Health 2000;90:1933-6.

Safaeian M, Wilson LE, Taylor E, Thomas DL, Vlahov D. HTLV-II and bacterial infections among injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000;24:483-7.

Shah NG, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, V S, Johnson L, Nelson KE, Strathdee SA. Correlates of enrollment in methadone maintenance treatment programs differ by HIV-serostatus. AIDS 2000;14:2035-43.

Shin HD, Winkler C, Stephens JC, Bream J, Young H, Goedert JJ, O'Brien TR, Vlahov D, Buchbinder S, Giorgi J, Rinaldo C, Donfield S, Willoughby A, O'Brien SJ, Smith MW. Genetic restriction of HIV-1 pathogenesis to AIDS by promoter alleles of IL10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97:14467-72.

Shrestha S, Strathdee SA, Brahmbhatt H, Farzadegan H, Vlahov D, Smith MW. Short tandem repeat methodology for genotypic identification of single-person versus multi-person use of syringes. AIDS 2000;14:1507-13.

Song JY, Safaeian M, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D, Celentano DD. The prevalence of homelessness among injection drug users with and without HIV infection. J Urban Health 2000;77:678-87.

Tang AM, Smit E, Semba RD, Shah N, Lyles CM, Li D, Vlahov D. Improved antioxidant status among HIV-infected injecting drug users on potent antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000;23:321-6.

Thio CL, Nolt KR, Astemborski J, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Thomas DL. Screening for hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38:575-7.

Thomas DL, Astemborski J, Rai RM, Anania FA, Schaeffer M, Galai N, Nolt K, Nelson KE, Strathdee SA, Johnson L, Laeyendecker O, Boitnott J, Wilson LE, Vlahov D. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: host, viral, and environmental factors. JAMA 2000;284:450-6.

Thomas DL, Astemborski J, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA, Ray SC, Nelson KE, Galai N, Nolt KR, Laeyendecker O, Todd JA. Determinants of the quantity of hepatitis C virus RNA. J Infect Dis 2000;181:844-51.

Thomas DL, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D. Long-term prognosis of hepatitis C virus infection. JAMA 2000;284:2592.

Vlahov D. The role of epidemiology in needle exchange programs. Am J Public Health 2000;90:1390-2.

Wahlstrom JT, Tang A, Cofrancesco J, N. S,Jr, Dobs AS. Gonadal hormone levels in injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 2000;60:311-3.

Carneiro M, Fuller C, Doherty MC, Vlahov D. HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among new initiates into injection drug use over the age of 40 years old. Drug Alcohol Depend 1999;54:83-6.

Carneiro M, Yu XF, Lyles C, Templeton A, Weisstein AE, Safaeian M, Farzadegan H, Vlahov D, Markham RB. The effect of drug-injection behavior on genetic evolution of HIV-1. J Infect Dis 1999;180:1025-32.

Carrieri MP, Moatti JP, Vlahov D, Obadia Y, Reynaud-Maurupt C, Chesney M. Access to antiretroviral treatment among French HIV infected injection drug users: the influence of continued drug use. MANIF 2000 Study Group. J Epidemiol Community Health 1999;53:4-8.

Carrington M, Nelson GW, Martin MP, Kissner T, Vlahov D, Goedert JJ, Kaslow R, Buchbinder S, Hoots K, O'Brien SJ. HLA and HIV-1: heterozygote advantage and B*35-Cw*04 disadvantage. Science 1999;283:1748-52.

Comer JA, Tzianabos T, Flynn C, Vlahov D, Childs JE. Serologic evidence of rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari) infection among intravenous drug users in inner-city Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1999;60:894-8.

Dean M, Jacobson LP, McFarlane G, Margolick JB, Jenkins FJ, Howard OM, Dong HF, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Gomperts E, Vlahov D, Oppenheim JJ, O'Brien SJ, Carrington M. Reduced risk of AIDS lymphoma in individuals heterozygous for the CCR5-delta32 mutation. Cancer Res 1999;59:3561-4.

Inglesby TV, Rai R, Astemborski J, Gruskin L, Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Thomas DL. A prospective, community-based evaluation of liver enzymes in individuals with hepatitis C after drug use. Hepatology 1999;29:590-6.

Kimura M, Converse PJ, Astemborski J, Rothel JS, Vlahov D, Comstock GW, Graham NM, Chaisson RE, Bishai WR. Comparison between a whole blood interferon-gamma release assay and tuberculin skin testing for the detection of tuberculosis infection among patients at risk for tuberculosis exposure. J Infect Dis 1999;179:1297-300.

Krol A, Flynn C, Vlahov D, Miedema F, Coutinho RA, van Ameijden EJ. New evidence to reconcile in vitro and epidemiologic data on the possible role of heroin on CD4+ decline among HIV-infected injecting drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 1999;54:145-54.

Lyles CM, Graham NM, Astemborski J, Vlahov D, Margolick JB, Saah AJ, Farzadegan H. Cell-associated infectious HIV-1 viral load as a predictor of clinical progression and survival among HIV-1 infected injection drug users and homosexual men. Eur J Epidemiol 1999;15:99-108.

Pezzotti P, Galai N, Vlahov D, Rezza G, Lyles CM, Astemborski J. Direct comparison of time to AIDS and infectious disease death between HIV seroconverter injection drug users in Italy and the United States: results from the ALIVE and ISS studies. AIDS Link to Intravenous Experiences. Italian Seroconversion Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1999;20:275-82.

Sterling TR, Lyles CM, Vlahov D, Astemborski J, Margolick JB, Quinn TC. Sex differences in longitudinal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels among seroconverters. J Infect Dis 1999;180:666-72.

Strathdee SA, Celentano DD, Shah N, Lyles C, V S, Macalino G, Nelson K, Vlahov D. Needle-exchange attendance and health care utilization promote entry into detoxification. J Urban Health 1999;76:448-60.

Sulkowski M, Thomas DL. Viral hepatitis among injection drug users. Viral Hepatitis Reviews 1999;4:229-244.

Thio CL, Carrington M, Marti D, O'Brien SJ, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Astemborski J, Thomas DL. Class II HLA alleles and hepatitis B virus persistence in African Americans. J Infect Dis 1999;179:1004-6.

van Ameijden EJ, Krol A, Vlahov D, Flynn C, van Haastrecht HJ, Coutinho RA. Pre-AIDS mortality and morbidity among injection drug users in Amsterdam and Baltimore: an ecological comparison. Subst Use Misuse 1999;34:845-65.

Villano SA, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Cohn S, Thomas DL. Persistence of viremia and the importance of long-term follow-up after acute hepatitis C infection. Hepatology 1999;29:908-14.

Bishai WR, Graham NM, Harrington S, Pope DS, Hooper N, Astemborski J, Sheely L, Vlahov D, Glass GE, Chaisson RE. Molecular and geographic patterns of tuberculosis transmission after 15 years of directly observed therapy. JAMA 1998;280:1679-84.

Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Cohn S, V S, Obasanjo O, Moore RD. Self-reported antiretroviral therapy in injection drug users. JAMA 1998;280:544-6.

Donahoe RM Vlahov D. Opiates as potential cofactors in progression of HIV-1 infections to AIDS. J Neuroimmunol 1998;83:77-87.

Farzadegan H, Hoover DR, Astemborski J, Lyles CM, Margolick JB, Markham RB, Quinn TC, Vlahov D. Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and progression to AIDS. Lancet 1998;352:1510-4.

Gleghorn AA, Gee G, Vlahov D. Pharmacists' attitudes about pharmacy sale of needles/syringes and needle exchange programs in a city without needle/syringe prescription laws. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998;18 Suppl 1:S89-93.

Heimer R, Khoshnood K, Bigg D, Guydish J, Junge B. Syringe use and reuse: effects of syringe exchange programs in four cities. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998;18 Suppl 1:S37-44.

Keyl PM, Gruskin L, Casano K, Montag H, Junge B, Vlahov D. Community support for needle exchange programs and pharmacy sale of syringes: a household survey in Baltimore, Maryland. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998;18 Suppl 1:S82-8.

Latkin C, Glass GE, Duncan T. Using geographic information systems to assess spatial patterns of drug use, selection bias and attrition among a sample of injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 1998;50:167-75.

Latkin CA. Outreach in natural settings: the use of peer leaders for HIV prevention among injecting drug users' networks. Public Health Rep 1998;113 Suppl 1:151-9.

Latkin CA, Mandell W, Knowlton AR, Doherty MC, Vlahov D, Suh T, Celentano DD. Gender differences in injection-related behaviors among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. AIDS Educ Prev 1998;10:257-63.

Latkin CA, Vlahov D. Socially desirable response tendency as a correlate of accuracy of self-reported HIV serostatus for HIV seropositive injection drug users. Addiction 1998;93:1191-7.

Lyles CM, Vlahov D, Farzadegan H, Astemborski J, Margolick JB, Masters BA, Schroeder J, Quinn TC. Comparison of two measures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 load in HIV risk groups. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:3647-52.

Markham RB, Wang WC, Weisstein AE, Wang Z, Munoz A, Templeton A, Margolick J, Vlahov D, Quinn T, Farzadegan H, Yu XF. Patterns of HIV-1 evolution in individuals with differing rates of CD4 T cell decline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998;95:12568-73.

Martin MP, Dean M, Smith MW, Winkler C, Gerrard B, Michael NL, Lee B, Doms RW, Margolick J, Buchbinder S, Goedert JJ, O'Brien TR, Hilgartner MW, Vlahov D, O'Brien SJ, Carrington M. Genetic acceleration of AIDS progression by a promoter variant of CCR5. Science 1998;282:1907-11.

Riley E, Beilenson P, Vlahov D, Smith L, Koenig M, Jones TS, Doherty M. Operation Red Box: a pilot project of needle and syringe drop boxes for injection drug users in East Baltimore. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998;18 Suppl 1:S120-5.

Sterling TR, Moore RD, Graham NM, Astemborski J, Vlahov D, Chaisson RE. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease are not associated with protection against subsequent disseminated M. avium complex disease. AIDS 1998;12:1451-7.

Thomas DL, Vlahov D, Alter HJ, Hunt JC, Marshall R, Astemborski J, Nelson KE. Association of antibody to GB virus C (hepatitis G virus) with viral clearance and protection from reinfection. J Infect Dis 1998;177:539-42.

Valente TW, Foreman RK, Junge B, Vlahov D. Satellite exchange in the Baltimore Needle Exchange Program. Public Health Rep 1998;113 Suppl 1:90-6.

Vlahov D, Graham N, Hoover D, Flynn C, Bartlett JG, Margolick JB, Lyles CM, Nelson KE, Smith D, Holmberg S, Farzadegan H. Prognostic indicators for AIDS and infectious disease death in HIV-infected injection drug users: plasma viral load and CD4+ cell count. JAMA 1998;279:35-40.

Vlahov D, Junge B. The role of needle exchange programs in HIV prevention. Public Health Rep 1998;113 Suppl 1:75-80.

Wang Z, Lyles CM, Beyrer C, Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Natpratan C, Markham R, Khamboonruang C, Nelson K, Yu XF. Diversification of subtype E human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env in heterosexual seroconverters from Northern Thailand. J Infect Dis 1998;178:1507-11.

Winkler C, Modi W, Smith MW, Nelson GW, Wu X, Carrington M, Dean M, Honjo T, Tashiro K, Yabe D, Buchbinder S, Vittinghoff E, Goedert JJ, O'Brien TR, Jacobson LP, Detels R, Donfield S, Willoughby A, Gomperts E, Vlahov D, Phair J, O'Brien SJ. Genetic restriction of AIDS pathogenesis by an SDF-1 chemokine gene variant. ALIVE Study, Hemophilia Growth and Development Study (HGDS), Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study (MHCS), San Francisco City Cohort (SFCC). Science 1998;279:389-93.

Yu XF, Wang Z, Vlahov D, Markham RB, Farzadegan H, Margolick JB. Infection with dual-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants associated with rapid total T cell decline and disease progression in injection drug users. J Infect Dis 1998;178:388-96.

Zhang H, Flynn C, Nelson KE, Chen W, Kawalski R, Vlahov D. HIV/HTLV-II coinfection and CD4+ cell count controlling for plasma HIV viral load in injection drug users in Baltimore. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998;18:397-8.

Converse PJ, Jones SL, Astemborski J, Vlahov D, Graham NM. Comparison of a tuberculin interferon-gamma assay with the tuberculin skin test in high-risk adults: effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis 1997;176:144-50.

Doherty MC, Garfein RS, Vlahov D, Junge B, Rathouz PJ, Galai N, Anthony JC, Beilenson P. Discarded needles do not increase soon after the opening of a needle exchange program. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:730-7.

Erbelding EJ, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Rompalo AM, Cohn S, Sanchez P, Quinn TC, Brathwaite W, Thomas DL. Syphilis serology in human immunodeficiency virus infection: evidence for false-negative fluorescent treponemal testing. J Infect Dis 1997;176:1397-400.

Saah AJ, Spruill C, Hoover DR, Prevots R, Taylor E, Margolick JB, Vlahov D. Helper T-lymphocyte count. TRAx CD4 test kit versus conventional flow cytometry. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1997;121:960-2.

Thomas DL, Nakatsuji Y, Shih JW, Alter HJ, Nelson KE, Astemborski JA, Lyles CM, Vlahov D. Persistence and clinical significance of hepatitis G virus infections in injecting drug users. J Infect Dis 1997;176:586-92.

Thomas DL, Yarbough PO, Vlahov D, Tsarev SA, Nelson KE, Saah AJ, Purcell RH. Seroreactivity to hepatitis E virus in areas where the disease is not endemic. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35:1244-7.

Villano SA, Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Purcell RH, Saah AJ, Thomas DL. Hepatitis A among homosexual men and injection drug users: more evidence for vaccination. Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:726-8.

Villano SA, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Lyles CM, Cohn S, Thomas DL. Incidence and risk factors for hepatitis C among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35:3274-7.

Vlahov D, Junge B, Brookmeyer R, Cohn S, Riley E, Armenian H, Beilenson P. Reductions in high-risk drug use behaviors among participants in the Baltimore needle exchange program. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997;16:400-6.

Ahmed F, Steinhoff MC, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Hamilton RG, Musher DM, Nelson KE. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on the antibody response to a glycoprotein conjugate pneumococcal vaccine: results from a randomized trial. J Infect Dis 1996;173:83-90.

Crum RM, Galai N, Cohn S, Celentano DD, Vlahov D. Alcohol use and T-lymphocyte subsets among injection drug users with HIV-1 infection: a prospective analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996;20:364-71.

Galai N, Margolick JB, Astemborski J, Vlahov D. Existence and failure of T-cell homeostasis prior to AIDS onset in HIV-infected injection drug users. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1996;79:134-41.

Garfein RS, Vlahov D, Galai N, Doherty MC, Nelson KE. Viral infections in short-term injection drug users: the prevalence of the hepatitis C, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency, and human T-lymphotropic viruses. Am J Public Health 1996;86:655-61.

Graham NM, Galai N, Nelson KE, Astemborski J, Bonds M, Rizzo RT, Sheeley L, Vlahov D. Effect of isoniazid chemoprophylaxis on HIV-related mycobacterial disease. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:889-94.

Latkin C, Mandell W, Vlahov D, Oziemkowska M, Celentano D. People and places: behavioral settings and personal network characteristics as correlates of needle sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996;13:273-80.

Latkin CA, Mandell W, Vlahov D, Oziemkowska M, Celentano DD. The long-term outcome of a personal network-oriented HIV prevention intervention for injection drug users: the SAFE Study. Am J Community Psychol 1996;24:341-64.

Manoff SB, Farzadegan H, Munoz A, Astemborski JA, Vlahov D, Rizzo RT, Solomon L, Graham NM. The effect of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression and HIV RNA load among injecting drug users. J Infect Dis 1996;174:299-308.

Manoff SB, Vlahov D, Herskowitz A, Solomon L, Munoz A, Cohn S, Willoughby SB, Nelson KE. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and infective endocarditis among injecting drug users. Epidemiology 1996;7:566-70.

Smit E, Graham NM, Tang A, Flynn C, Solomon L, Vlahov D. Dietary intake of community-based HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative injecting drug users. Nutrition 1996;12:496-501.

Thomas DL, Shih JW, Alter HJ, Vlahov D, Cohn S, Hoover DR, Cheung L, Nelson KE. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus on hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users. J Infect Dis 1996;174:690-5.

Busch MP, Lee LL, Satten GA, Henrard DR, Farzadegan H, Nelson KE, Read S, Dodd RY, Petersen LR. Time course of detection of viral and serologic markers preceding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion: implications for screening of blood and tissue donors. Transfusion 1995;35:91-7.

Caiaffa WT, Graham NM, Galai N, Rizzo RT, Nelson KE, Vlahov D. Instability of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test anergy in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:2111-7.

Concha M, Selnes OA, McArthur JC, Nance-Sproson T, Updike ML, Royal W,3rd, Solomon L, Vlahov D. Normative data for a brief neuropsychologic test battery in a cohort of injecting drug users. Int J Addict 1995;30:823-41.

Galai N, Vlahov D, Margolick JB, Chen K, Graham NM, Munoz A. Changes in markers of disease progression in HIV-1 seroconverters: a comparison between cohorts of injecting drug users and homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995;8:66-74.

Gershon RR, Vlahov D, Farzadegan H, Alter MJ. Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections among funeral service practitioners in Maryland. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:194-7.

Gleghorn AA, Jones TS, Doherty MC, Celentano DD, Vlahov D. Acquisition and use of needles and syringes by injecting drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995;10:97-103.

Harrison K, Vlahov D, Jones K, Charron K, Clements ML. Medical eligibility, comprehension of the consent process, and retention of injection drug users recruited for an HIV vaccine trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995;10:386-90.

Holmberg SD, Conley LJ, Luby SP, Cohn S, Wong LC, Vlahov D. Recent infection with human immunodeficiency virus and possible rapid loss of CD4 T lymphocytes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995;9:291-6.

Kunzi MS, Farzadegan H, Margolick JB, Vlahov D, Pitha PM. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus primary isolates resistant to interferon-alpha and correlation of prevalence to disease progression. J Infect Dis 1995;171:822-8.

Latkin C, Mandell W, Oziemkowska M, Celentano D, Vlahov D, Ensminger M, Knowlton A. Using social network analysis to study patterns of drug use among urban drug users at high risk for HIV/AIDS. Drug Alcohol Depend 1995;38:1-9.

Latkin C, Mandell W, Vlahov D, Knowlton A, Oziemkowska M, Celentano D. Personal network characteristics as antecedents to needle-sharing and shooting gallery attendance. Social Networks 1995;17:219-228.

Latkin C, Mandell W, Vlahov D, Oziemkowska M, Celentano D. Self-reported reasons for needle sharing and not carrying bleach among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD. J Drug Issues 1995;25:865-870.

Levine OS, Vlahov D, Koehler J, Cohn S, Spronk AM, Nelson KE. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus in a population of injecting drug users. Association with drug injection patterns. Am J Epidemiol 1995;142:331-41.

Markham RB, Yu X, Farzadegan H, Ray SC, Vlahov D. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env and p17gag sequence variation in polymerase chain reaction-positive, seronegative injection drug users. J Infect Dis 1995;171:797-804.

Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Solomon L, Cohn S, Munoz A. Temporal trends of incident human immunodeficiency virus infection in a cohort of injecting drug users in Baltimore, Md. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:1305-11.

Roca J, Vlahov D, Borrell C, Jansa JM, Brugal T, Yazbeck H, Munoz A. Geographic variation in HIV infection among injecting drug users within Barcelona. Int J Addict 1995;30:219-29.

Semba RD, Caiaffa WT, Graham NM, Cohn S, Vlahov D. Vitamin A deficiency and wasting as predictors of mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected injection drug users. J Infect Dis 1995;171:1196-202.

Solomon L, Vlahov D, Astemborski J, Galai N. Factors associated with initiation of zidovudine in a cohort of injection drug users. J Drug Issues 1995;25:225.

Sorkin JD, Bolton PA, Greenblatt J, Sithisarankul P, Vlahov D, Graham NM. Age, gender, and other predictors of the wasting syndrome among HIV-1-infected injecting drug users. Epidemiology 1995;6:172-7.

Thomas DL, Vlahov D, Solomon L, Cohn S, Taylor E, Garfein R, Nelson KE. Correlates of hepatitis C virus infections among injection drug users. Medicine (Baltimore) 1995;74:212-20.

Vlahov D. Deregulation of the sale and possession of syringes for HIV prevention among injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995;10:71-2.

Vlahov D, Khabbaz RF, Cohn S, Galai N, Taylor E, Kaplan JE. Incidence and risk factors for human T-lymphotropic virus type II seroconversion among injecting drug users in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995;9:89-96.

Alcabes P, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Friedland G. Maturity of human immunodeficiency virus infection and incubation period of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in injecting drug users. Ann Epidemiol 1994;4:17-26.

Astemborski J, Vlahov D, Warren D, Solomon L, Nelson KE. The trading of sex for drugs or money and HIV seropositivity among female intravenous drug users. Am J Public Health 1994;84:382-7.

Aylward RB, Vlahov D, Munoz A, Rapiti E. Validation of the proposed World Health Organization staging system for disease and infection in a cohort of intravenous drug users. AIDS 1994;8:1129-33.

Behrendt C, Kendig N, Dambita C, Horman J, Lawlor J, Vlahov D. Voluntary testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a prison population with a high prevalence of HIV. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:918-26.

Caiaffa WT, Vlahov D, Graham NM, Astemborski J, Solomon L, Nelson KE, Munoz A. Drug smoking, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and immunosuppression increase risk of bacterial pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive injection drug users. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:1493-8.

Celentano DD, Munoz A, Cohn S, Nelson KE, Vlahov D. Drug-related behavior change for HIV transmission among American injection drug users. Addiction 1994;89:1309-17.

Chilcoat HD, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Anthony JC. Low power? Use two-dimensional confidence regions as a graphical method for depicting uncertainty. Drug Alcohol Depend 1994;36:39-48.

Gershon RR, Curbow B, Kelen G, Celantano D, Lears K, Vlahov D. Correlates of attitudes concerning human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among hospital workers. Am J Infect Control 1994;22:293-9.

Gleghorn AA, Doherty MC, Vlahov D, Celentano DD, Jones TS. Inadequate bleach contact times during syringe cleaning among injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994;7:767-72.

Herskowitz A, Wu TC, Willoughby SB, Vlahov D, Ansari AA, Beschorner WE, Baughman KL. Myocarditis and cardiotropic viral infection associated with severe left ventricular dysfunction in late-stage infection with human immunodeficiency virus. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24:1025-32.

Kendig N, Stough T, Austin P, Kummer L, Swetz A, Vlahov D. Profile of HIV seropositive inmates diagnosed in Maryland's state correctional system. Public Health Rep 1994;109:756-60.

Khabbaz RF, Ksiazek TG, Caiaffa WT, Rollin PE, Taylor E, Vlahov D. Seoul hantavirus seropositivity among injecting drug users in Baltimore. J Infect Dis 1994;170:1636-7.

Latkin C, Mandell W, Oziemkowska M, Vlahov D, Celentano D. The relationships between sexual behavior, alcohol use, and personal network characteristics among injecting drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Sex Transm Dis 1994;21:161-7.

Latkin C, Mandell W, Vlahov D, Oziemkowska M, Knowlton A, Celentano D. My place, your place, and no place: behavior settings as a risk factor for HIV-related injection practices of drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Community Psychol 1994;22:415-30.

Levine OS, Vlahov D, Nelson KE. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infections among injecting drug users: seroprevalence, risk factors, and viral interactions. Epidemiol Rev 1994;16:418-36.

Mandell W, Vlahov D, Latkin C, Carran D, Oziemkowska M, Reedt L. Changes in HIV risk behaviors among counseled injecting drug users. J Drug Issues 1994;24:555-567.

Mandell W, Vlahov D, Latkin C, Oziemkowska M, Cohn S. Correlates of needle sharing among injection drug users. Am J Public Health 1994;84:920-3.

Margolick JB, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Astemborski J, Solomon L, He XY, Nelson KE, Saah AJ. Direct comparison of the relationship between clinical outcome and change in CD4+ lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus-positive homosexual men and injecting drug users. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:869-75.

McMillian T, Dorsey E, Beilenson P, Vlahov D. A community-based needle clean-up project. Am J Public Health 1994;84:1854.

Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Galai N, Astemborski J, Solomon L. Preparations for AIDS vaccine trials. Incident human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994;10 Suppl 2:S201-5.

Schutz CG, Rapiti E, Vlahov D, Anthony JC. Suspected determinants of enrollment into detoxification and methadone maintenance treatment among injecting drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 1994;36:129-38.

Schutz CG, Vlahov D, Anthony JC, Graham NM. Comparison of self-reported injection frequencies for past 30 days and 6 months among intravenous drug users. J Clin Epidemiol 1994;47:191-5.

Vlahov D. HIV vaccines for injection drug users in the context of a comprehensive prevention agenda. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994;10 Suppl 2:S3-6.

Vlahov D, Astemborski J, Solomon L, Galai N, Basarab L, Nelson KE. Interest in HIV vaccines among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994;10 Suppl 2:S265-8.

Vlahov D, Astemborski J, Solomon L, Nelson KE. Field effectiveness of needle disinfection among injecting drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994;7:760-6.

Vlahov D, Brookmeyer RS. The evaluation of needle exchange programs. Am J Public Health 1994;84:1889-91.

Vlahov D, Ryan C, Solomon L, Cohn S, Holt MR, Akhter MN. A pilot syringe exchange program in Washington, DC. Am J Public Health 1994;84:303-4.

Zaccarelli M, Gattari P, Rezza G, Conti S, Spizzichino L, Vlahov D, Ippolito G, V L, Valenzi C. Impact of HIV infection on non-AIDS mortality among Italian injecting drug users. AIDS 1994;8:345-50.

Alcabes P, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Friedland GH. Incubation period of human immunodeficiency virus. Epidemiol Rev 1993;15:303-18.

Caiaffa WT, Graham NM, Vlahov D. Bacterial pneumonia in adult populations with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Am J Epidemiol 1993;138:909-22.

Farzadegan H, Vlahov D, Solomon L, Munoz A, Astemborski J, Taylor E, Burnley A, Nelson KE. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by polymerase chain reaction in a cohort of seronegative intravenous drug users. J Infect Dis 1993;168:327-31.

Herskowitz A, Vlahov D, Willoughby S, Chaisson RE, Schulman SP, Neumann DA, Baughman KL. Prevalence and incidence of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Cardiol 1993;71:955-8.

Jason J, Solomon L, Celentano DD, Vlahov D. Potential use of mass media to reach urban intravenous drug users with AIDS prevention messages. Int J Addict 1993;28:837-51.

Latkin CA, Vlahov D, Anthony JC. Socially desirable responding and self-reported HIV infection risk behaviors among intravenous drug users. Addiction 1993;88:517-26.

Palenicek J, Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Galai N, Cohn S, Saah AJ. Comparison of clinical symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus disease between intravenous drug users and homosexual men. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1806-12.

Semba RD, Graham NM, Caiaffa WT, Margolick JB, Clement L, Vlahov D. Increased mortality associated with vitamin A deficiency during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:2149-54.

Solomon L, Astemborski J, Warren D, Munoz A, Cohn S, Vlahov D, Nelson KE. Differences in risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion among male and female intravenous drug users. Am J Epidemiol 1993;137:892-8.

Strickler HD, Blanchard JF, Vlahov D, Taylor E, Munoz A, Nelson KE, Margolick JB. Elevated serum levels of neopterin but not beta 2-microglobulin in HIV-1-seronegative injecting drug users. AIDS 1993;7:361-7.

Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Quinn TC, Kendig N. Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among male prison inmates in Maryland. Eur J Epidemiol 1993;9:566-9.

Willoughby SB, Vlahov D, Herskowitz A. Frequency of left ventricular dysfunction and other echocardiographic abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus seronegative intravenous drug users. Am J Cardiol 1993;71:446-7.

Alcabes P, Vlahov D, Anthony JC. Correlates of human immunodeficiency virus infection in intravenous drug users: are treatment-program samples misleading? Br J Addict 1992;87:47-54.

Alcabes P, Vlahov D, Anthony JC. Characteristics of intravenous drug users by history of arrest and treatment for drug use. J Nerv Ment Dis 1992;180:48-54.

Behrendt C, Vlahov D, Clak J, Kendig N. HIV infection and AIDS among U.S. prison inmates. Journal of Crime and Justice 1992;15:173-186.

Chaisson RE, Taylor E, Margolick JB, Munoz A, Solomon L, Cohn S, Nelson KE, Vlahov D. Immune serum markers and CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected intravenous drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1992;5:456-60.

Concha M, Graham NM, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Royal W,3rd, Updike M, Nance-Sproson T, Selnes OA, McArthur JC. Effect of chronic substance abuse on the neuropsychological performance of intravenous drug users with a high prevalence of HIV-1 seropositivity. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:1338-48.

Galai N, Graham N, Chaisson R, Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Lewis J. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1172-3.

Graham NM, Nelson KE, Solomon L, Bonds M, Rizzo RT, Scavotto J, Astemborski J, Vlahov D. Prevalence of tuberculin positivity and skin test anergy in HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative intravenous drug users. JAMA 1992;267:369-73.

Latkin CA, Vlahov D, Anthony JC, Cohn S, Mandell W, Nelson KE. Needle-cleaning practices among intravenous drug users who share injection equipment in Baltimore, Maryland. Int J Addict 1992;27:717-25.

Margolick JB, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Solomon L, Astemborski J, Cohn S, Nelson KE. Changes in T-lymphocyte subsets in intravenous drug users with HIV-1 infection. JAMA 1992;267:1631-6.

Munoz A, Vlahov D, Solomon L, Margolick JB, Bareta JC, Cohn S, Astemborski J, Nelson KE. Prognostic indicators for development of AIDS among intravenous drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1992;5:694-700.

Samuels JF, Vlahov D, Anthony JC, Chaisson RE. Measurement of HIV risk behaviors among intravenous drug users. Br J Addict 1992;87:417-28.

Selnes OA, McArthur JC, Royal W,3rd, Updike ML, Nance-Sproson T, Concha M, Gordon B, Solomon L, Vlahov D. HIV-1 infection and intravenous drug use: longitudinal neuropsychological evaluation of asymptomatic subjects. Neurology 1992;42:1924-30.

Smith AM, Vlahov D, Menon AS, Anthony JC. Terminology for drug injection practices among intravenous drug users in Baltimore. Int J Addict 1992;27:435-53.

Smith MD, Celentano DD, Solomon L, Astemborski J, Vlahov D. Knowledge of therapeutics for human immunodeficiency virus infection among intravenous drug users. J Infect Dis 1992;166:685-6.

Smith SS, O'Hara BF, Persico AM, Gorelick DA, Newlin DB, Vlahov D, Solomon L, Pickens R, Uhl GR. Genetic vulnerability to drug abuse. The D2 dopamine receptor Taq I B1 restriction fragment length polymorphism appears more frequently in polysubstance abusers. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:723-7.

Vlahov D. HIV-1 infection in the correctional setting. NIDA Res Monogr 1992;118:51-61.

Vlahov D, Sullivan M, Astemborski J, Nelson KE. Bacterial infections and skin cleaning prior to injection among intravenous drug users. Public Health Rep 1992;107:595-8.

Anthony JC, Vlahov D, Celentano D, Menon AS, Margolick J, Cohn S, Nelson G, Polk BF. Self-reported interview data for a study of HIV-1 infection among intravenous drug users: Description of methods and preliminary evidence on validity. J Drug Issues 1991;21:739-757.

Anthony JC, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Cohn S, Astemborski J, Solomon L. New evidence on intravenous cocaine use and the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Am J Epidemiol 1991;134:1175-89.

Celentano D, Vlahov D, Menon AS, Polk BF. HIV knowledge and attitudes among intravenous drug users - comparisons to the U.S. population and by drug use behaviors. J Drug Issues 1991;21:635-649.

Celentano DD, Vlahov D, Cohn S, Anthony JC, Solomon L, Nelson KE. Risk factors for shooting gallery use and cessation among intravenous drug users. Am J Public Health 1991;81:1291-5.

Donahue JG, Nelson KE, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Rennie LL, Taylor EL, Saah AJ, Cohn S, Odaka NJ, Farzadegan H. Antibody to hepatitis C virus among cardiac surgery patients, homosexual men, and intravenous drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol 1991;134:1206-11.

Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Cohn S, Lindsay A, Solomon L, Anthony JC. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in diabetic intravenous drug users. JAMA 1991;266:2259-61.

Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Cohn S, Odunmbaku M, Lindsay A, Antohony JC, Hook EW,3rd. Sexually transmitted diseases in a population of intravenous drug users: association with seropositivity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). J Infect Dis 1991;164:457-63.

Royal W, Updike M, Selnes OA, Proctor TV, Nance-Sproson L, Solomon L, Vlahov D, Cornblath DR, McArthur JC. HIV-1 infection and nervous system abnormalities among a cohort of intravenous drug users. Neurology 1991;41:1905-10.

Samuels JF, Vlahov D, Anthony JC, Solomon L, Celentano DD. The practice of 'frontloading' among intravenous drug users: association with HIV-antibody. AIDS 1991;5:343.

Solomon L, Frank R, Vlahov D, Astemborski J. Utilization of health services in a cohort of intravenous drug users with known HIV-1 serostatus. Am J Public Health 1991;81:1285-90.

Steinhoff MC, Auerbach BS, Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Becker RL, Graham NM, Schwartz DH, Lucas AH, Chaisson RE. Antibody responses to Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines in men with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1837-42.

Vlahov D, Anthony JC, Celentano D, Solomon L, Chowdhury N. Trends of HIV-1 risk reduction among initiates into intravenous drug use 1982-1987. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1991;17:39-48.

Vlahov D, Anthony JC, Munoz A, Margolick J, Nelson KE, Celentano DD, Solomon L, Polk BF. The ALIVE study, a longitudinal study of HIV-1 infection in intravenous drug users: description of methods and characteristics of participants. NIDA Res Monogr 1991;109:75-100.

Vlahov D, Munoz A, Celentano DD, Cohn S, Anthony JC, Chilcoat H, Nelson KE. HIV seroconversion and disinfection of injection equipment among intravenous drug users, Baltimore, Maryland. Epidemiology 1991;2:444-6.

Gershon RR, Vlahov D, Nelson KE. The risk of transmission of HIV-1 through non-percutaneous, non-sexual modes--a review. AIDS 1990;4:645-50.

Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Margolick J, Bernal M, Taylor E. Blood and plasma donations among a cohort of intravenous drug users. JAMA 1990;263:2194-7.

Tomas JM, Vlahov D, Anthony JC. Association between intravenous drug use and early misbehavior. Drug Alcohol Depend 1990;25:79-89.

Vlahov D, Munoz A, Anthony JC, Cohn S, Celentano DD, Nelson KE. Association of drug injection patterns with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among intravenous drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol 1990;132:847-56.

Jones C, Vlahov D. Why don't intravenous drug users use condoms? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1989;2:416-7.

Novick DM, Trigg HL, Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Vlahov D, Kreek MJ. Cocaine injection and ethnicity in parenteral drug users during the early years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in New York City. J Med Virol 1989;29:181-5.

Vlahov D, Polk BF. Intravenous drug use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in prison. AIDS Public Policy Journal 1988;3:42-46.

Vlahov D, Polk BF. Perspectives on infection with HIV-1 among intravenous drug users. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:325-9.