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Civilian Helicopter Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems Could Be More Effective


Stricter Military Regulations Have Close to 100% Success Rate

The crash-resistant standards for the fuel systems of civilian helicopters are not as effective in protecting passengers in survivable crashes as stricter military helicopter standards, according to a study by researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Injury Research and Policy. The civil standards may be less effective than anticipated when they were established in 1994. This is the first study of its kind to determine the effectiveness of the standards. The study is published in the August 2005 issue of Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine.

Susan P. Baker

Susan P.Baker

Post-crash fires are the single most important hazard to survivors of helicopter crashes. Even though crash-resistant fuel systems have been almost 100 percent effective in survivable crashes of military helicopters, manufacturers and regulators of civil aircraft have been slow to implement the technology in civil helicopters, explained Dennis F. Shanahan, MD, MPH, corresponding author of the study and an associate in the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Department of Health Policy and Management. “In 1994, civil regulations were implemented. They were based on the military regulations, but are not as strict as the military requirements. They also applied only to newly certificated helicopter models.”

The researchers examined National Transportation Safety Board data of civil helicopter crashes from 1982 to 2004. They compared Bell 206 helicopters with crash-resistant fuel systems to Aerospatial-350 helicopters, which did not have crash-resistant fuel systems. They also looked at Bell 206 helicopters before and after crash-resistant fuel systems were implemented. The Aerospatial-350 helicopters, made after 1981, had the highest proportion (11 percent) of crashes with post-crash fires. Fewer than four percent of the Bell 206 helicopter crashes had post-crash fires. Early Bell 206 models had a higher risk of post-crash fire, when compared to models built after 1982, which is the year Bell Helicopter voluntarily implemented crash-resistant fuel system standards similar to the civil regulations that wouldn’t be formally mandated for another 12 years.

Fuel containment and isolation of fuel from ignition sources is critical to surviving a crash. Uncontained fuel turns into a mist, which when exposed to an ignition source, produces a fireball, typically before the helicopter comes to rest. This makes it more difficult for occupants to survive a crash.

“Post-crash fires are a serious issue that doesn’t often get the attention it deserves. We should be doing everything possible to increase helicopter crash victims’ chance of survival,” said Susan P. Baker, MPH, a professor in the Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Department of Health Policy and Management and Center for Injury Research and Policy.

Co-authors of the study are Mark S. Hayden, Dennis F. Shanahan, Li-Hui Chen and Susan P. Baker.

“Crash-Resistant Fuel System Effectiveness in Civil Helicopter Crashes” was supported by a grant from the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Public Affairs media contacts for the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: Kenna Lowe or Tim Parsons at 410-955-6878 or